Mattityahu
(Matthew)
h¹b 
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This is my own personal rendering or paraphrase of (and commentary on) the Tanakh and Apostolic Writings. It should not be considered in any way authoritative. It is based on The World English Bible: Messianic Edition, also known as the Hebrew Names Version, which is in the Public Domain.

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The Good News of the Kingdom
According to Mattityahu

Why is so much Hebrew vocabulary necessary? Read About This Version.
Please be sure to also read the Introduction to the Gospels and Acts.

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Introductory Notes and Outline

Author: Mattityahu Levi
Theme: Yeshua as Mashiach ben David — the Lion of Judah and King of Israel
Date of Writing: approximately 50 CE
Target Audience: Jewish people living in the Diaspora

Mattityahu (Matthew), also called Levi in the Gospel accounts of Mark and Like, was a tax collector for the Roman government, among the most-hated occupations in first-century Israel. He portrays Yeshua as the promised Messiah (the Lion of Judah), the son of David and heir to his throne. His genealogy is given back to Avraham through David to prove that He is the rightful heir, and seven times (1:1; 9:27; 12:23; 15:22; 20:30; 21:9; 22:42) He is referred to as “Son of David,” a Messianic title well known throughout Israel. His birth in Bethlehem, the City of David, is emphasized, and only in this Gospel account is Jerusalem referred to as “the holy city” (4:5) and “city of the great king” (5:35). Only in this account does the King refer to “His glorious throne“ (19:28; 25:31). Since this is the Gospel of the King, it is also the Gospel of the Kingdom. The word “kingdom” is used more than 50 times and the phrase “kingdom of heaven” is used about 30 times. In His only recorded sermon, the King declares the “constitution” of his kingdom (chapters 5-7).

It is important to understand that Mattityahu’s letter is organized thematically, not chronologically. Of the four Gospel accounts, only Lukas (Dr. Luke) indicates that his account is intended to be in chronological order (Luke 1:3).

 While Rav Sha'ul was commissioned by Yeshua to be the Emissary to the gentiles, Matthew was commissioned to be an Emissary to the Jews. This letter is specifically directed to Jewish people living in the diaspora to demonstrate to them that Yeshua is their King Messiah.

The letter may be outlined as follows:

I. The King Introduced (chapters 1-4)

A. His Genealogy, Birth, and Early Life (chapters 1 & 2)

1. His Genealogy from Avraham Through David (1:1-17; Luke 3:23-38)

2. His Conception and Birth (1:18-25; Luke 1:26-38; 2:1-7; John 1:1-2,14)

3. The Visit of the Maji (2:1-12)

4. The Flight into Egypt (2:13-14)

5. Herod Slays the Innocents (2:16-18)

6. The Return from Egypt to Nazareth (2:19-23; Luke 2:39-40 and 41-52)

B. The King Announced (chapters 3 & 4)

1. “Elijah” Announces the King and His Kingdom (3:1-12; Mark 1:1-8; Luke 3:1-20; John 1:6-8;15-37)

2. Yeshua’s Tevilah (3:13-17; Mark 1:9-11; Luke 3:21-22; John 1:31-34)

3. Yeshua’s Testing and Triumph (4:1-11; Mark 1:12-13; Luke 4:1-13)

4. Yeshua Begins His Ministry in Capernaum (4:12-17; Mark 1:14; Luke 4:14-15)

5. The First Talmidim Called (4:18-22; Mark 1:16-20; Luke 5:1-11; John 1:35-42)

6. Early Ministry in the Galil (4:23-25)

II. The “Constitution” of the Kingdom (chapters 5-7)

A. Content of the Constitution (5:1-6:20)

1. Prosperity (5:1-12; Luke 6:20-49

2. Public Witness (5:13-16; Mark 4:21-23; Luke 8:16-18)

3. Perpetual Continuity of Torah (5:17-20)

4. Reconciliation (5:21-26)

5. Marriage, Divorce, and Sexual Conduct (5:27-32; 19:3-11; Mark 10:2-12; 1Cor. 7:1-16)

6. Perjury and Retaliation (5:33-42)

7. Conduct Toward Enemies (5:43-48; Luke 6:27-36)

8. Hypocrisy (6:1-4)

9. Instruction on Prayer and Fasting (6:5-18)

a. Prayer Guidelines (6:5-8)

b. The Model Prayer (6:9-13)

c. Forgiving and Fasting (6:14-18)

10. Finances (6:19-24)

11. Worry and Anxiety (6:25-34)

12. Unjust Criticism (7:1-6; Luke 6:37-42)

13. Petitioning the King (7:7-11; Luke 11:2)

14. Interpersonal Relations; Torah Summarized (7:12; Luke 6:31; Eph. 4:32)

15. The Two Paths and Two Gates (7:13-14)

16. False Teachers (7:15-20; Luke 6:43-45)

B. The Seriousness of the Constitution (7:21-27)

1. Verbal Assent Insufficient (7:21-23; Luke 6:46)

2. Two Foundations (7:24-27; Luke 6:47-49)

C. Public Reaction to the Constitution (7:28-29)

III. The Authority of the King (chapters 8-12)

A. A Summary of Demonstrations (chapters 8 and 9)

1. Tzara`at Healed (8:1-4; Mark 1:40-45; Luke 5:12-14)

2. A Centurion’s Servant Healed (8:5-13; Luke 7:1-10)

3. Kefa’s Mother-in-Law Healed (8:14-17; Mark 1:29-34; Luke 4:38-41)

4. Two Potential Talmidim Decline (8:18-22; cp.. Luke 9:57-62)

5. Authority Over Nature (8:23-27; Mark 4:36-61; Luke 8:22-25)

6. Authority Over Demons (8:28-34; Mark 5:1-21; Luke 8:26-40)

7. A Paralytic Healed (9:1-8; Mark 2:3-12; Luke 6:18-26)

8. A Parenthetical Event

a. Mattityahu Levi Called to be a Talmid (9:9; Mark 2:14; Luke 5:27-29)

b. The Reception at Mattiyahu’s Home (9:10-15; Mark 2:15-20; Luke 5:29-35)

9. A Parable: Cloth and Wineskins (9:16-17; Mark 2:21-22; Luke 5:36-39)

10. Two More Healings (9:18-28; Mark 5:21-43; Luke 8:40-56)

11. Two Blind Men Healed (9:27-31)

12. A Demoniac Delivered (9:32-35)

13. Compassion for the Multitudes (9:36-38)

B. Training the Twelve (chapters 10-12)

1.  Their First Training Mission (chapter 10)

a. Instructions for the Mission (10:1-15)

b. Warnings About Resistance to the Message (10:16-23)

c. Cost and Benefits of Discipleship (10:24-42)

2. Yeshua Eulogizes Yochanan the Immerser (11:1-19; Luke 7:18-35)

3. Yeshua Denounces Indifference (11:20-24)

4. A Call for Personal Discipleship (11:25-30)

5. Messiah is Lord of Shabbat (12:1-14)

a. Yeshua Claims Lordship Over Shabbat (12:1-8; Mark 2:23-28; Luke 6:1-5)

b. Yeshua Proves Lordship Over Shabbat (12:9-13; Mark 3:1-5; Luke 6:6-11)

c. The P'rushim Determine to Kill Yeshua (12:14; Mark 3:6)

6. Many Additional Healings (12:15-23; Mark 3:6-12)

7. P'rushim Blaspheme Ruach HaKodesh (12:24-30; Mark 3:22-30; Luke 11:14-23)

8. The Unpardonable Sin (12:31-32; Mark 3:28-30)

9. Our Words Create Our Destiny (12:33-37)

10. The Sign of Jonah (12:38-41; Luke 11:29-32)

11. The Sign of the Queen of Sheba (12:42; 2Chron. 9:1-12)

12. The Importance of Being Possessed by Ruach HaKodesh (12:43-45; Luke 11:24-26)

13. True Relationships in the Kingdom (12:46-50; Mark 3:31-35; Luke 8:19-21)

IV. Mysteries of the Kingdom (chapter 13)

A. Mysteries Taught Through Parables (13:1-52)

1. The Sower and the Soils (13:1-9; Mark 4:1-25; Luke 8:4-15)

a. The Parable Explained Privately (13:10-17)

2. Tares Among Wheat (13:24-30)

a. The Parable Explained Privately (13:24-30)

3. The Mustard Seed (13:31-32; Mark 4:30-32)

4. The Leaven (13:33; Luke 13:20-21)

a. His Use of Parables Fulfilled Prophecy (13:34-35)

b. The Parable of the Tares Explained Privately (13:36-43)

5. The Hidden Treasure (13:44)

6. The Pearl of Great Price (13:45-46)

7. The Dragnet (13:44-51)

8. The Homeowner (13:52)

B. The King Rejected in Nazareth (13:53-58; Mark 6:1-6)

V. Ministry of the King (chapters 14-20)

A. Yochanan the Immerser Murdered (14:1-14; Mark 6:14-19; Luke 9:7-9)

B. Teaching in the Galil

1. Five Thousand Fed (14:15-21; Mark 6:30-44; Luke 9:10-17; John 6:1-14)

2. The King Walks on Water (14:22-33)

3. Healing at Ginosar (14:34-36; Mark 6:53-56)

4. Torah vs. Tradition (15:1-9; Mark 7:1-13)

5. Wickedness of the Heart (15:10-20; Mark 7:14-23)

g. The Canaanite Woman’s Faith (15:21-28; Mark 7:24-30)

7. More Healing (15:29-31; Mark 7:31-37)

8. Four Thousand Fed (15:32-39; Mark 8:1-9)

9. Hypocrites Rebuked (16:1-5; Mark 8:10-14)

10. The Rebuke Explained (16:6-12; Mark 8:15-21)

11. Kefa’s Confession (16:13-20; Mark 8:27-30; Luke 9:18-21)

12. The King Foretells His Death and Resurrection (16:21-23; Mark 8:31-33; Luke 9:22)

13. The Cost of Discipleship (16:24-28; Mark 8:34-38; Luke 9:23-26)

14. The Transfiguration: the Kingdom Revealed (17:1-13; Mark 9:2-3; Luke 9:28-36)

15. An Object Lesson on Faith (17:14-21; Mark 9:14-29; Luke 9:37-43)

16. The King Again Foretells His Death and Resurrection (17:22-23; Mark 9:30-32; Luke 9:45-45)

17. The Miracle of the Temple Tax (17:24-27; Mark 12:13-17)

18. Childlike Faith Required for Kingdom Citizenship (18:1-6; Mark 9:33-50; Luke 9:46-50)

19. Parable of the Lost Sheep (18:7-14; Luke 14:3-7)

20. Discipline and Restoration (18:15-35; Luke 17:3-4)

C. Teaching in Judea Beyond the Jordan (chapters 19 and 20)

1. Divorce, Adultery, and Celibacy (19:1-12; Mark 10:1-12)

2. The Rabbi Blesses the Children (19:13-15; Mark 10:13-16; Luke 18:15-17)

3. A Rich Young Man (19:16-26; Mark 10:17-27; Luke 18:18-17)

4. What’s In It For me? (19:27-30; Mark 10:28-31; Luke 18:28-30)

5. Parable of the Laborers (20:1-16)

6. The King Again Foretells His Death and Resurrection (20:17-19; Mark 10:32-32; Luke 18:31-34)

7. A Mother’s Request (20:20-28; Mark 10:35-45)

8. Two Blind Men Restored (20:29-32; Mark 10:46-52)

VI. The King’s Last Week (chapters 21 - 27)

A. The King Enters Jerusalem (21:1-11; Mark 11:1-10; Luke 19:29-38; John 12:12-9)

B. Final Teaching in Jerusalem

1. The King Cleanses His Temple (21:12-17; mark 11:15-18; Luke 19:45-47)

2. The Barren Fig Tree (21:18-22; Mark 11:12-14, 20-26)

3. The King’s Authority Challenged (21:23-27; Mark 11:27-33; Luke 20:1-8)

4. Parable of Two Sons (21:28-32)

5. Parable of the Homeowner (21:33-41; Mark 12:1-9; Luke 20:9-19)

6. Authority of False Priests Revoked (21:42-46)

7. Parable of the Marriage Feast (22:1-14; Luke 14:16-24)

8. The King Answers the Herodians (22:15-22; Mark 12:13-17; Luke 20:20-26)

9. The King Answers the Tz'dukim (22:23-33; Mark 12:18-27; Luke 20:27-38)

10. The King Answers the P'rushim (22:34-40; Mark 12:28-34; Luke 10: 25-28)

11. The King Quizzes the P'rushim About Messiah (22:41-46; Mark 12:35-37; Luke 20:41-44)

12. The King Condemns Legalism (23:1-12; Mark 12:38-40; Luke 20:45-47)

13. The King Pronounces Seven Woes (23:13-36; Mark 12:38-40; Luke 20:47)

14. The King Weeps Over Jerusalem (23:37-39; Luke 13:34-35)

C. The King Foretells His Return (Olivet Seminar) (chapters 24 and 25)

1. The Temple to Be Destroyed (24:1-2; Mark 13;1-2; Luke 21; 5-6)

2. The Talmidim’s Question (24:3-4; Mark 13:3-4; Luke 21:7)

3. Signs of the Acharit-HaYamim (24:4-14; Mark 13:5-13; Luke 21:8-11)

4. The Abomination of Desolation (24:15-20; Mark 13:14-18; Luke 21:20-23)

5. The Great Tribulation (24:21-28; Mark 13:19-23; Luke 21:23-24)

6. The King’s Return to Earth (24:29-31; (Mark 13:24-27; Luke 21:29-33)

7. Parable of the Fig Tree (24:32-35; Mark 13:28-31; Luke 21:29-33)

8. A Warning for Watchfulness (24:36-51; Mark 13:32-37; Luke 21;34-36)

9. Parable of Ten Virgins (25:1-13)

10. Parable of the Talents (25:14-30)

D. Arrest and Murder of the King (chapters 26 and 26)

1. Conspiracy to Murder the King (26:1-5; Mark 14:1-2; Luke 22:1-2)

2. The King Anointed for his Death (26:6-13; Mark 14:3-9; John 12:1-8)

3. Y'udah’s Treason (26:14-16; Mark 14:10-11; Luke 22:3-6)

4. The King’s Last Pesach (26:17-30)

a Preparation Day (26:17-19; Mark 14:12-16; Luke 22:7-13)

b. The Seder Meal (26:20-25; Mark 14:17-21; Luke 22:14-20,24-30)

c. The Seder Memorial Established (26:26-30; Mark 14:22-25; Luke 22:17-20)

5. On the Mount of Olives (26:31-56

a. Kefa’s Denial Foretold (26:31-35; Mark 14:26-31; Luke 22:31-34; John 13:31-38)

b. Yeshua’s Agony (26:36-38; Mark 14:32-42; Luke 22:39-46; John 18:1)

c. The First Prayer (26:39; Mark 14:35; Luke 22:41-42)

d. The Sleeping Talmidim (26:40-41; Mark 14:37-40; Luke 22:45-46)

e. The Second Prayer (26:42-43; Mark 14:39; Luke 22:44)

f. The Third Prayer (26:44; Mark 14:41)

g. The King Betrayed and Arrested (26:47-56; Mark 14:43-50; Luke 22:47-53; John 18:3-11)

6. The King on Trial (26:57-27:26)

a. The Unlawful Trial by the Sanhedrin (26:57-68; Mark 14:53-65)

b. Kefa Denies the King (26:69-75; Mark 14:66-72; Luke 22:55-62; John 18:15-18,25-27)

c. The King Taken to the Governor (27:1-2; Mark 15:1; Luke 23:1; John 18:28)

d. The Traitor’s Remorse (27:3-10)

e. The Governor Confronts the King (27:11-14; Mark 15:2-5; Luke 23:2-3; John 18:29-38)

7. Bar-Abba Released to the Mob (27:15-26; Mark 15:6-15; Luke 23:13-25)

8. The King Scourged (27:27-32; Mark 15:16-23; Luke 23:26-32; John 19:16-17)

9. The King Murdered (27:33-44; Mark 15;22-32; Luke 23:33-43; John 19:17-24)

10. The Death of the King (27:45-56; Mark 15:33-41; Luke 23:44-49; John 19:30-37)

11. The Burial of the King (27:57-61; Mark 15:42-47; Luke 23:50-56; John 19:38-42)

12. The Tomb Sealed and Guarded (27:62-66)

VII. Resurrection of the King (chapter 28)

A. The Empty Tomb (28:1-10)

B. The Soldiers Bribed (28:11-15)

C. The King’s Ambassadors Commissioned (28:16-20)

 

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I. The King Introduced (chapters 1-4) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

A. His Genealogy, Birth, and Early Life (chapters 1 & 2) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

1. His Genealogy from Avraham Through David (1:1-17; Luke: 3:23-38) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

1 1This is the record of the genealogy[1a] of Yeshua HaMashiach[1b], the son[1c] of David, the son of Avraham.

Avraham to David HaMelech
2Avraham became the father[2a] of Yitz'chak.
Yitz'chak became the father of Ya'akov.
Ya'akov became the father of Y'hudah[2b] and his brothers.
3Y'hudah became the father of Peretz and Zerach;
    Tamar was their mother.[3]
Peretz became the father of Hetzron.
Hetzron became the father of Ram.
4Ram became the father of `Amminadav.
`Amminadav became the father of Nachshon.
Nachshon became the father of Salmon.
5Salmon became the father of Bo`az;
    Rachav was his mother.
Bo`az became the father of `Oved;
    Rut was his mother.
`Oved became the father of Yishai.
6Yishai became the father of David HaMelekh.
David HaMelekh to the Exile in Bavel
David became the father of Shlomo;
    she who had been the wife of Uriyah[6] was his mother.
7Shlomo became the father of Rechav`am.
Rechav`am became the father of Aviyah.
Aviyah became the father of Asa.
8Asa became the father of Y'hoshafat.
Y'hoshafat became the father of Yoram.
Yoram became the father of `Uziyahu.
9`Uziyahu became the father of Yotam.
Yotam became the father of Achaz.
Achaz became the father of Hizkiyahu.
10Hizkiyahu became the father of M'nasheh.
M'nasheh became the father of Amon.
Amon became the father of Yoshiyahu.
11Yoshiyahu became the father of Y'khanyahu and his brothers, at the time of the exile to Bavel.
From the Exile in Bavel to Mashiach
12After the exile to Bavel, Y'khanyahu became the father of Sh'altiel.
Sh'altiel became the father of Z'rubavel.
13Z'rubavel became the father of Avihud.
Avihud became the father of Elyakim.
Elyakim became the father of `Azur.
14`Azur became the father of Tzadok.
Tzadok became the father of Yakhin.
Yakhin became the father of El'ichud.
15El'ichud became the father of El`azar.
El`azar became the father of Mattan.
Mattan became the father of Ya'akov.
16Ya'akov became the father of Yosef, the husband of Miryam[16], from whom was born Yeshua, who is called Mashiach.

17So all the generations from Avraham to David are fourteen generations[17]; from David to the exile to Bavel fourteen generations; and from the carrying away to Bavel to the Mashiach, fourteen generations.

2. His Conception and Birth (1:18-25; Luke 1:26-38; 2:1-7; John 1:1-2,14) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

18The birth of Yeshua HaMashiach was like this.

When his mother Miryam was engaged to Yosef, before they were married and had sexual relations, she was found to be pregnant by the power of Ruach HaKodesh. 19Her husband Yosef was a tzaddik. He was not willing to make her a public example, and planned to divorce her secretly.[19] 20As he was considering his options, an angel[20a] of ADONAI[20b] appeared to him in a dream. The angel said, “Yosef, son of David, don’t be afraid to marry Miryam. The child that she has conceived is by the power of Ruach HaKodesh. 21She will have a son, and you are to name Him Yeshua,[21] for it is He who will save His people from their sins.”

22Now all this has happened so that what ADONAI said through the prophet might happen[22] as He said:

23“Look[23a], the virgin shall become pregnant, and she shall have a son. They shall call his name Immanuel;” which means “God with us.”[23b]

24Yosef immediately got up and did as ADONAI’s angel had commanded him. He married his wife, 25and didn’t have sexual relations with her until after her firstborn son was born. He named him Yeshua.


3. The Visit of the Maji (2:1-12) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

2 1About two years[1a] after Yeshua was born in Beit-Lechem[1b] in the land of Y'hudah, when Herod was king, magi[1c] from the East[1d] came to Yerushalayim, asking, 2“Where is the newborn King of the Y'hudim?[2a] For we in the east saw His star,[2b] and we have come to worship him.”

3When King Herod heard of them, he was upset, and so was everyone in Yerushalayim.[3] 4Harod called together all the Chief Priests and Torah Teachers[4] of the people, and asked them where the Mashiach would be born. 5They told him, “In Beit-Lechem in the land of Y'hudah, for this is what the prophet wrote:

6‘You Beit-Lechem, in the land of Y'hudah, are in no way least among the princes of Y'hudah. For out of you shall come forth a ruler, who shall shepherd my people, Yisra'el.’”[6]

7Then Herod summoned the magi to meet with him privately, asked them exactly when the star had appeared. 8Then he sent them to Beit-Lechem with these instructions: “Search carefully for the child. When you find Him, let me know so I may also go and worship Him.”

9After listening to the king, they went on their way, and the star they had seen when they were in the East led them until it came and stood over where the young child was. 10When they saw the star, they were extremely joyful. 11They went into the house[11a] and saw the young child with His mother Miryam, and they fell down and worshiped Him. Opening their treasures, they offered Him gifts: gold, frankincense, and myrrh.[11b] 12Having been warned in a dream that they shouldn’t return to Herod, they went back to their own country[12] another way.

4. The Flight into Egypt (2:13-14) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

13After the magi had gone, an angel of ADONAI[13] appeared to Yosef in a dream and said, “Get up and take the young child and his mother, and escape to Egypt. Stay there until I tell you, because Herod will try to find the Child and kill Him.”

14So he got up and took the Child and His mother that night, and went to Egypt, 15and stayed there until Herod died. This was done so that the words of ADONAI’s prophet would be fulfilled:

“Out of Egypt I called My Son.”[15]

5. Herod Slays the Innocents (2:16-18) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

16When Herod realized that he had been tricked by the magi, he was furious, and sent out his army and killed all the male children aged two years aged two years and younger who were in and around Beit-Lechem, based on the timing he had learned from the magi. 17Then the words of Yirmeyahu were fulfilled:

18“A voice was heard in Ramah,[18a] howling, weeping, and great mourning, Rachel weeping for her children. She couldn’t be comforted, because they are all dead.”[18b]

6. The Return from Egypt to Nazareth (2:19-23; Luke 2:39-40 & 41-52) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

19After Herod’s death, an angel of ADONAI appeared in a dream to Yosef in Egypt, and said, 20“Get up and take the young child and his mother, and go to Eretz-Yisra'el. Those who wanted to kill the child are dead.”

21He arose and took the young child and his mother, and came into Eretz-Yisra'el. 22But when he heard that Archelaus was reigning over Y'hudah in the place of his father, Herod, he was afraid to go there. Being warned in a dream, he withdrew into the region of the Galil, 23and came and lived in a city called Natzeret[23a] so what was spoken through the prophets would come to pass: “He will be called a Natzrati.”[23b]


B. The King Announced (chapters 3 & 4) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

1. “Elijah” Announces the King and His Kingdom (3:1-12; Mark 1:1-8; Luke 3:1-20; John 1:6-8;15-37) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

3 1It was in those days that Yochanan the Immerser[1] came to wilderness of Y'hudah, proclaiming this message: 2“Turn away from your sins and turn to God,[2a] for the Kingdom of Heaven is near[2b]. 3He was the one who was spoken of by Yesha'yahu the prophet:

“The voice of one crying in the wilderness, make ready the way of ADONAI. Make a straight paths for Him.”[3].

Yochanan Preaches Teshuva and Many Receive Tevilah

4Yochanan wore clothing made of camel’s hair, with a leather belt around his waist. His food was locusts and wild honey. 5People went out to him from Yerushalayim, from all of Y'hudah, and the whole region around the Yardan. 6Confessing their sins, they were being immersed by him in the Yardan.[6]

7But when he saw many of the Pharisees and Sadducees[7] coming for tevilah he said to them, “You offspring of vipers, who warned you to flee from the wrath to come? 8Therefore bring forth fruit worthy of teshuva! 9Don’t think to yourselves, ‘We have Avraham for our father,’ for I tell you that God is able to raise up children for Avraham from these stones.[8]

10“The axe is already at the root of the trees, ready to strike. Every tree that doesn’t produce good fruit will be cut down and tossed into the fire. 11I am immersing you in water so that you might turn from sin back to God; but the One Who is coming after me is more powerful than I am; I am not even worthy to carry His shoes. He will immerse you in Ruach HaKodesh and fire.[11] 12He has His winnowing fork with him, and He will thoroughly clear out His threshing floor, and will gather His wheat into the barn, but will burn up the chaff with unquenchable fire.”

2. Yeshua’s Tevilah (3:13-17; Mark 1:9-11; Luke 3:21-22; John 1:31-34) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

13Then Yeshua came from the Galil to the Yardan to Yochanan, to be immersed by him. 14But Yochanan would have hindered Him and said, “I need to be immersed by You, and You come to me?”

15But Yeshua answered him, “Allow it now, for this is the fitting way for us to fulfill all righteousness.”[15]Then he allowed Him. 16Yeshua, when He was immersed, went up directly from the water, and — imagine it! — the heavens were opened to Him. He saw the Spirit of God descending as a dove, and coming on Him. 17Behold, a voice out of the heavens said, “This is My beloved Son, with Whom I am well pleased.”


3. Yeshua’s Testing and Triumph (4:1-11; Mark 1:12-13; Luke 4:1-13) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

4 1Then the Ruach led Yeshua up into the wilderness[1a] to be tempted by the devil.[1b] 2After Yeshua had fasted for forty days and forty nights, He was hungry.[2] 3The Tempter[3a] came and said to him, “Since[3b] you are the Son of God, command that these stones become bread.”

4But Yeshua answered, “The Tanakh says,

‘Man does not live on only bread, but on every word that comes from the mouth of ADONAI.’”[4]

5Then the devil took Him to the holy city, set Him on the highest point of the Temple wall, 6and said to Him, “Since you are the Son of God, jump! The Tanakh says,

‘He will order His angels to be responsible for your protection, … they will support with their hands so you don’t even bump your foot against a stone.’”[6]

7Yeshua said to him, “But the Tanakh also says,

‘Do not put ADONAI your God to the test.’”[7]

8Once again the devil took Him to the summit of a very high mountain, and showed him all the kingdoms of the world in all their glory, 9and told Him, “I will give you all of this if you will bow down and worship me.”[9]

10Then Yeshua said to him, “Go away, Satan![10a] For the Tanakh says,

‘Worship ADONAI your God shall serve only Him.’”[10b]

11Then the devil left Him, and angels came and tended to Him.

4. Yeshua Begins His Ministry in Capernaum (4:12-17; Mark 1:14; Luke 4:14-15) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

12When Yeshua heard that Yochanan had been imprisoned[12], He returned to the Galil. 13Leaving Natzeret, He came and lived in K'far-Nachum[13a], on Lake Kinneret[13b] near Z'vulun and Naftali[13c]. 14This was to fulfill what Yesha'yahu the prophet had said:

15“Land of Z'vulun and land of Naftali, toward the lake, beyond the Yarden, Galil-of-the-Goyim[15]16the people living in darkness have seen a great light; upon those living in the region, in the shadow of death, light has dawned."[16]

17From that time, Yeshua began to proclaim, “Turn away from your sins and return to God! For the Kingdom of Heaven is near.”[17]

5. The First Talmidim Called (4:18-22; Mark 1:16-20; Luke 5:1-11; John 1:35-42) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

18Walking by Lake Kinneret, Yeshua saw two brothers who were fishermen — Shim'on, also called Kefa, and Andrai — casting a net into the lake. 19Yeshua said to them, “Come after me, and I will make you fishers for men.”

20They immediately left their nets and went with him. 21Going on from there, he saw two other brothers, Ya'akov[21] ben-Zavdai, and Yochanan his brother, in the boat with their father Zavdai, repairing their nets. He called them 22and they immediately left the boat and their father, and followed Him.

6. Early Ministry in the Galil (4:23-25) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

23Yeshua went all over the Galil, teaching in their synagogues[23], proclaiming the Good News of the Kingdom, and healing people from every kind disease and sickness. 24News about Him spread throughout all Syria, and people brought to Him all who were sick, suffering from various diseases and torments, those possessed by demons, epileptics, and paralytics; and He healed them. 25Large crowds followed Him from the Galil, Decapolis, Yerushalayim, Y'hudah, and `Ever-HaYarden[25].


II. The “Constitution” of the Kingdom (chapters 5-7) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

A. Content of the Constitution (5:1-6:20) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

1. Prosperity (5:1-12; Luke 6:20-49 [BACK TO OUTLINE]
Rabbi Greg Hershberg teaches the
Sermon on the Mount in his series
“Yeshua Gives Kingdom Manifesto”
    • Part 1 (05/21/11)
    • Part 2 (05/28/11)
    • Part 3 (06/04/11)

5 1Seeing the crowds, He walked up the hill.[5-1a] After He sat down, His talmidim[5-1b] came to him, 2and He began to teach them:

3“How spiritually prosperous[3a] are the poor in spirit!
for the Kingdom of Heaven is theirs.[3b]
4How spiritually prosperous are those who mourn!
for they will be comforted.[4]
5How spiritually prosperous are the meek!
for they will inherit the Land![5]
6How spiritually prosperous are those who hunger and thirst for righteousness!
for they will be filled.
7How spiritually prosperous are those who show mercy!
for they will be shown mercy.
8How spiritually prosperous are the pure in heart!
for they will see God.
9How spiritually prosperous are those who make peace!
for they will be called sons of God.
10How spiritually prosperous are those who are persecuted because they pursue righteousness!
for the Kingdom of Heaven is theirs.

11“How spiritually prosperous are you when[11] people insult you, and persecute you, and tell all kinds of evil lies about you because of me. 12Rejoice, and be exceedingly glad, because your reward in heaven is very great.[12] They persecuted the prophets before you in the same way.

2. Public Witness (5:13-16; Mark 4:21-23; Luke 8:16-18) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

13“You are salt for the earth. But if the salt has lost its strength and flavor, how can it be made salty again? It is no longer good for anything except to be thrown out for people to trample on. 14You are light for the world. A city that is built on a hill can’t be hidden. 15Nobody lights a lamp puts it under a basket; they put it on a lampstand so that it gives light for everyone in the house. 16In the same way, you need to let your light shine before men so they may see the good things you do[16] and give glory to your Father in heaven.

3. Perpetual Continuity of Torah (5:17-20) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

17“Don’t think that I have come to destroy the Torah or the Prophets. I haven’t come to destroy, but to fulfill.[17] 18Truly[18a] I tell you that until heaven and earth pass away, not even one yud[18b] or even the tiniest pen stroke[18c] will in any way pass away from the Torah until all things are accomplished. 19Therefore, whoever breaks one of the least of the mitzvot[19a] and teaches people to do so will be called least in the kingdom of heaven. But whoever practices and teaches them (the mitzvot) will be called great in the Kingdom of Heaven.[19b] 20For I tell you that unless your righteousness surpasses that of the Torah teachers and Pharisees, there is no way you will enter into the Kingdom of Heaven.[20]

4. Reconciliation (5:21-26) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

21“You have heard that our ancestors were told, ‘Do not murder’[21] and ‘Whoever murders will be in danger of judgment.’ 22But I tell you that anyone who is angry with his brother will be subject to judgment; and whoever calls his brother, ‘You good-for-nothing!’[22a] will be brought before the Sanhedrin; and whoever says, ‘You fool!’ is in danger of the fire of Gie-Hinnom![22b]

23“So if you are offering your gift[23] at the Temple altar and remember that your brother has anything against you, 24leave your gift right there by the altar, and go and reconcile with your brother.[24] Then come back and offer your gift. 25If someone sues you, come to terms with him quickly while you are on your way to court; otherwise the prosecutor may hand you over to the judge, and the judge may hand you over to the officer of the court, who may throw you into prison. 26Truly I tell you, there is no way that you will get out until you have paid the very last penny.[26]

5. Marriage, Divorce, and Sexual Conduct (5:27-32; 19:3-11; Mark 10:2-12; 1Cor. 7:1-16) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

27“You have heard that our fathers were told ‘Do not commit adultery.’[27] 28but I tell you that everyone who gazes[28] at a woman with the intent to lust after her has already committed adultery with her in his heart. 29If your right eye makes you sin, gouge it out and throw it away! It's better for you to lose one of your parts than for your whole body to be thrown into Gie-Hinnom. 30If your right hand makes you sin, cut it off and throw it away! It's better for you to lose one of your parts than for your whole body to be thrown into Gie-Hinnom.

31“It was also said, ‘Whoever divorces his wife must give her a get.’[31] 32But I tell you that anyone who divorces his wife for any reason other than sexual immorality makes her an adulteress; and anyone who marries a divorcee commits adultery.[32]

6. Perjury and Retaliation (5:33-42) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

33“Again you have heard that our fathers were told, ‘Do not break your oath, but keep your vows to ADONAI.[33] 34But I tell you not to swear at all: not by heaven, because it is God’s throne; 35not by the earth, because it His footstool; not by Yerushalayim, because it is the city of the Great King. 36And don’t swear by your head, because you can’t make one single hair white or black. 37Just let your ‘Yes’ be a simple ‘Yes’ and your ‘No’ be a simple ‘No.’ Anything more than these comes from the evil one.

38“You have heard that our fathers were told, ‘Eye for eye and tooth for tooth.’[38] 39But I tell you not to stand against one who does you wrong; if someone hits you on your right cheek, let him hit you on the left cheek, too.[39] 40If someone sues you to take your shirt, let him have your jacket, too. 41If a soldier forces you to carry his pack for one mile, carry it for two miles! 42When someone asks you for something, give it to him; when someone wants to borrow something from you, lend it to them.

7. Conduct Toward Enemies (5:43-48; Luke 6:27-36) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

43“You have heard that our fathers were told, ‘Love your neighbor[43a], and hate your enemy.’[43b] 44But I tell you, love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you! 45Then you will become children of your Father in heaven. For He makes His sun rise on both good and evil people, and He sends rain to both the righteous and the unrighteous. 46What reward do you get if you only love people who love you? Even the tax collectors do that! 47If you are only friendly toward your friends, how is that different from everyone else? Even the Goyim[47] do that! 48Therefore, you be perfect[48], just as your Father in heaven is perfect.[48]


8. Hypocrisy (6:1-4) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

6 1““Be careful not to parade your acts of tzedakah[1] in front of people in order to be seen by them. if you do, you have no reward from your Father in heaven. 2Therefore when you do tzedakah, don’t blow a shofar[2a] in the synagogues and in the streets like the hypocrites do to win praise of people. Truly[2b] I tell you, they have already received all the reward they're going to get. 3When you do tzedakah don’t even let your left hand know what your right hand is doing. 4Then your tzedakah will be in secret, and your Father, Who sees in secret, will reward you.

9. Instruction on Prayer and Fasting (6:5-18) [BACK TO OUTLINE]
a. Prayer Guidelines (6:5-8) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

5“When you pray, don’t be like the hypocrites who love to pray standing in the synagogues and on the street corners, where people can see them. Truly, they already have their reward! 6But you, when you pray, go into your private room, shut the door, and pray to your Father secretly.[6] and your Father who sees in secret will reward. 7When you pray, don’t babble or speak gibberish like the the pagans do; they think that the more they speak the better God will hear them.[7] 8Don’t be like them. Your Father knows what you need even before you ask him!

b. The Model Prayer (6:9-13) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

 9Pray like this:

“‘Avinu shebashamayim, yitkadesh shimkha.
      Our Father in heaven, may your Name be kept holy.
10Tavo malkhutekha ye’aseh r’tzonekha ba’aretz ka’asher na’asah vashamayim.
      May Your Kingdom come and Your will be done here on earth, just as it is in heaven.
11Ten-lanu haiym lechem chukeinu.
      Give us each day the food we need for that day.
12u’selach-lanu et-ashmateinu ka’asher solechim anachnu la’asher ashmu lanu.
      Forgive us what we have done wrong, as we also forgive those who have wronged us.[12]
13ve’al-tevieinu lidei massah, ki im-hatsileinu min-hara.
      Don’t lead us into difficult testing, but protect us from the Evil One.
Ki lekha ha-mamlakha ve-hagevurah veha-tiferet l’olemei ’olamim. Omein.
      For the Kingdom, the power, and the glory are Yours forever. Amen.’[13]
c. Forgiving and Fasting (6:14-18) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

14“For if you forgive others their offenses, your heavenly Father will also forgive you; 15but if you don’t forgive others their offenses, your heavenly Father won’t forgive yours.

16“When you fast, don’t act miserable like the hypocrites do. They make sour faces so people will see they are fasting. Truly, they have already received all the reward they're going to. 17But you, when you fast, wash your face and comb your hair, 18so nobody will be able to tell that you are fasting except your Father who is with you in secret. Your Father, who sees what you do in secret, will reward you.

10. Finances (6:19-24) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

19“Don’t store your wealth here on the earth, where moths and rust destroy, and where burglars break in and steal. 20Instead, store your wealth in in heaven,[20] where neither moths nor rust destroy, and where burglars don’t break in and steal; 21Where your true wealth is, that is where your heart will also be.

22“‘The eye is the lamp of the body.’ So if you have a ‘good eye’ your whole body will be full of light. 23But if you have an ‘evil eye’ your whole body will be full of darkness. Then if the light in you is darkness, how great is that darkness![23]

24“No one can ne a slave to two masters, since either he will hate one and love the other, or he will be devoted to one and despise the other. You can’t be a slave to both God and money.

11. Worry and Anxiety (6:25-34) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

 25This is why I tell you, don’t worry about your life, what you will eat or what you will drink; or about your body, what you will wear. Isn’t life more than food and the body more than clothing? 26Look at the birds of the sky. They don’t sow or reap; they don’t gather into barns. Yet your heavenly Father feeds them. Aren’t you worth more than they are?

27“Can any of you add a single moment[27] to his lifespan by worrying? 28Why be anxious about clothing? Think about how the wildflowers of the field grow. They don’t work or spin thread. 29But I’m telling you that not even Shlomo in all his splendor was dressed like one of these. 30If God dresses the grass of the field, which is here today and tossed into the furnace tomorrow, won’t He do so much more for you, Little Faith?[30].

31“Therefore don’t be anxious, saying, ‘What will we eat?’, ‘What will we drink?’ or, ‘With what will we be clothed?’ 32For the Goyim seek after all these things, for your heavenly Father knows that you need all these things. 33But seek first God’s Kingdom, and His righteousness; and all these things will be given to you as well. 34Therefore don’t be anxious for tomorrow; tomorrow will be anxious enough for itself. Each day’s own trouble is sufficient.


12. Unjust Criticism (7:1-6; Luke 6:37-42) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

7 1“Don’t judge, so that you won’t be judged. 2For whatever standard you use to judge others will be used to judge you; and whatever measure you use to measure others will be used to measure to you. 3Why do you see the splinter in your brother’s eye, but don’t recognize the log that is in your own eye? 4How can you tell your brother, ‘Let me take that splinter out of your eye’ when the log is in your own eye? 5You hypocrite! First take the log out of your own eye; then you will be able to see clearly to remove the splinter from your brother’s eye.

6“Don’t give holy things to dogs, and don’t throw your pearls to the pigs. If you do they will just trample them under their feet, then turn and tear you to pieces.

13. Petitioning the King (7:7-11; Luke 11:2) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

7“Keep asking, and it will be given you. Keep seeking, and you will find. Keep knocking, and the door will be opened for you. 8Everyone who keeps asking receives; the one who keeps seeking finds; to the one who keeps knocking the door will be opened.[8] 9Is there anyone among you who, if his son asks him for bread, will give him a stone? 10Or if he asks for a fish, will give him a snake? 11If you then, who are bad, know how to give good gifts to your children, how much more will your Father who is in heaven give good things to those who ask him!

14. Interpersonal Relations; Torah Summarized (7:12; Luke 6:31; Eph. 4:32) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

 12Always treat others the way you would like for them to treat you; that is the core of the Torah and the Prophets.[12]

15. The Two Paths and Two Gates (7:13-14) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

13“Enter in through the narrow gate; for the gate that leads to destruction is wide and the road is broad, and many go in that way. 14But the gate is narrow and the road is hard that leads to life! Only a few find it.

16. False Teachers (7:15-20; Luke 6:43-45) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

15“Beware of false prophets![15a] They come to you wearing sheep’s clothing,[15b] but underneath they are ravenous wolves. 16You will be able to recognize them by their fruit. Do you pick grapes from thorn bushes or figs from thistles? 17Even so, every good tree produces good fruit; but a corrupt tree produces diseased fruit. 18A good tree can’t produce diseased fruit, neither can a corrupt tree produce good fruit. 19Every tree that doesn’t grow good fruit is cut down, and thrown into the fire. 20Therefore, by their fruits you will know them.

B. The Seriousness of the Constitution (7:21-27) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

1. Verbal Assent Insufficient (7:21-23; Luke 6:46) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

 21Not everyone who says to me, ‘Lord, Lord,’ will enter into the Kingdom of Heaven, only those who  do what my Father in heaven wants.[21] 22On that Day,[22] many will say to Me, ‘Lord, Lord! Didn’t we prophesy in your name? Didn’t we cast out demons in your name? Didn’t we perform many miracles in your name?’ 23Then I will tell them, ‘I never knew you. Get away from me, you who despise Torah!’[23]

2. Two Foundations (7:24-27; Luke 6:47-49) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

24“So everyone who hears My words and acts on them is like a wise man who built his house on bedrock. 25The rain fell, the floods came, and the winds blew and beat against that house, but it didn’t collapse because its foundation was on bedrock. 26But everyone who hears my words but doesn’t act on them is like a stupid man who built his house on sand. 27The rain fell, the floods came, and the winds blew and beat against that house, and it collapsed—and its fall was terrible.”

C. Public Reaction to the Constitution (7:28-29) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

28When Yeshua had finished saying these things, the crowds were amazed at how He taught, 29because He taught them with His own authority, not like the Torah Teachers did.[29]


III. The Authority of the King (chapters 8-12) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

A. A Summary of Demonstrations (chapters 8 and 9) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

1. Tzara`at Healed (8:1-4; Mark 1:40-45; Luke 5:12-14) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

8 1When Yeshua came down from the hill, large crowds followed him. 2A man afflicted with tzara'at[2] came and bowed down before Him and said, “Sir, if You want to, You can make me clean.”

3Yeshua reached out His hand, and touched him,[3] saying, “I want to. Be clean.” Immediately his tzara'at was completely healed. 4Yeshua said to him, “Be sure that you don’t tell anybody about this; but as a testimony to the people, go and have the priest examine you, and present the offering that Moshe commanded.”[4]

2. A Centurion’s Servant Healed (8:5-13; Luke 7:1-10) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

5As Yeshua entered K'far-Nachum, a centurion[5] came up to Him and asked, 6Sir, my servant is lying at home, and is suffering terribly.”

7Yeshua said to him, “I will come and heal him.”

8The centurion answered, “Sir, It’s not appropriate[8] for you to come under my roof. Just say the word, and my servant will be healed. 9For I am also a man under authority, and have soldiers under me. I tell this one, ‘Go,’ and he goes; and tell another, ‘Come,’ and he comes; and tell my servant, ‘Do this,’ and he does it.”

10When Yeshua heard this, He was amazed and said to the people who were following Him, “Truly I tell you, I haven’t found anyone in Yisra'el with this kind of faith. 11I tell you that many will come from the east and the west[11a] to sit down at the feast with Avraham, Yitz'chak, and Ya'akov in the Kingdom of Heaven.[11b] 12But some of those who were born for the Kingdom will be thrown out into the outer darkness, where there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth.”[12]

13Then Yeshua said to the centurion, “Go home. Let it be done for you as you have trusted.” His servant was healed that same hour.

3. Kefa’s Mother-in-Law Healed (8:14-17; Mark 1:29-34; Luke 4:38-41) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

14When Yeshua came into Kefa’s house, he saw Kefa’s mother-in-law lying sick with a fever. 15He touched her hand, and the fever left her. She got up and began to serve Him. 16When evening came, they brought Him many who were possessed by demons. He cast out the spirits with a word, and healed all who were sick; 17This was done to fulfill what had been spoken through Yesha'yahu the prophet:

“He took our infirmities and bore our diseases.”[17]

4. Two Potential Talmidim Decline (8:18-22; cp.. Luke 9:57-62) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

 18When Yeshua saw the huge crowds that had gathered around Him, He gave instructions to depart to the other side of the lake.

19A Torah Teacher came up to Him and said, “Rabbi, I will follow You wherever You go.”

20Yeshua said to him, “The foxes have holes, and the birds of the sky have nests, but the Son of Man has nowhere to lay his head.”

21Another of His talmidim[21a] said to him, “Lord, let me go bury my father first.”[21b]

22But Yeshua said to him, “Follow me, and leave the dead to bury their own dead.”[22]

5. Authority Over Nature (8:23-27; Mark 4:36-61; Luke 8:22-25) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

23He got into a boat, and His talmidim followed Him. 24Suddenly a violent storm came up on the lake, so great that the boat was being covered by the waves.[24] But He was asleep. 25They came, woke him up, and said, “Save us, Lord! We’re about to die!”

26He said to them, “Why are you afraid, Little-Faiths?”[26] Then he got up, rebuked the wind and the sea, and there was dead calm.

27The men were amazed, and said, “What kind of man is this, that even the wind and the sea obey Him?”

6. Authority Over Demons (8:28-34; Mark 5:1-21; Luke 8:26-40) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

228When He arrived at the other side, into the country of the Gadarenes,[28a] two demon-possessed men[28b] possessed by demons met him there as they were coming out of the tombs. They were so extremely violent that nobody could pass that way. 29They shouted, “What do you want with us, Yeshua, Son of God? Have you come here to torment us before the time?”[29] 30There was a large herd of pigs feeding some distance away. 31The demons begged him, “If you cast us out, let us to go into that herd of pigs.”

32He said to them, “Go!” So they came out, and went into the herd of pigs: and the whole herd of pigs rushed down the cliff into the sea, and died in the water. 33The swineherds fled into the town, and told everything, including what happened to those who were possessed with demons. 34Everyone from the town came out to meet Yeshua. When they saw Him, they begged Him to leave their area.


7. A Paralytic Healed (9:1-8; Mark 2:3-12; Luke 6:18-26) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

9 1So He got into the boat, crossed the lake again, and entered His own town. 2They brought a paralyzed man to Him, lying on a pad. When Yeshua saw their trust, He said to the paralytic, “Cheer up, Son! Your sins are forgiven.”

3WWhen they saw this, some of the Sofrim said to themselves, “This man is blaspheming.”

4Knowing their thoughts, Yeshua asked them, “Why are you entertaining evil thoughts in your hearts? 5Which is easier to say, ‘Your sins are forgiven;’ or ‘Get up, and walk?’ 6I’ll show you that the Son of Man has authority on earth to forgive sins.” Then he said to the paralytic, “Get up, pick up your mat, and go home!”

7The man got up and went home. 8When the crowds saw this, they were amazed and said a b'rakhah[8] to God the Giver of such authority to human beings.

8. A Parenthetical Event [BACK TO OUTLINE]
a. Mattityahu Levi Called to be a Talmid (9:9; Mark 2:14; Luke 5:27-29) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

9As Yeshua passed on from there, he saw a man named Mattityahu [the author of this letter] sitting at his tax collection booth. He said to him, “Follow me,” and he got up and followed him.[9]

b. The Reception at Mattiyahu’s Home (9:10-15; Mark 2:15-20; Luke 5:29-35) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

10While Yeshua was in the house eating,[10a] many tax collectors and sinners[10b] came and joined Yeshua and his talmidim at the meal. 11When the P'rushim saw this,[11] they said to his talmidim, “Why does your rabbi eat with tax collectors and sinners?”

12But Yeshua heard the question[12] and answered, “Those who are healthy have no need for a physician, but those who are sick do. 13But you go and learn what this means: ‘I delight in loyalty rather than sacrifice…’[13a] I haven’s come to call the righteous, but sinners to teshuva.”[13b]

14Some time after that Yochanan’s talmidim came to Him and asked, “We and the P'rushim fast often, but why don’t Your talmidim?”

15Yeshua answered them, “Can the bridegroom’s wedding guests mourn while the bridegroom is still with them? But the time is coming when the bridegroom will be taken away from them, and then they will fast.

9. A Parable: Cloth and Wineskins (9:16-17; Mark 2:21-22; Luke 5:36-39) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

 16No one patches an old coat with a a piece of unshrunk cloth, because the patch would tear away from the garment and leave a worse hole. 17likewise, people don’t put new wine into old wineskins the skins would burst, the wine would spill, and the skins would be ruined. No, they put new wine into fresh wineskins, and this way both are preserved.”

10. Two More Healings (9:18-28; Mark 5:21-43; Luke 8:40-56) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

18While He was saying these things, an official came, knelt down in front of Him, and said, “My daughter has just died, but if you come and lay your hand on her, and she will live.”

19Yeshua and His talmidim got up and followed him. 20A woman who had had a hemorrhage for twelve years came up behind Him, and touched the tzitzit[20] on His robe. 21She had said to herself, “If I can just touch his tzitzit, I will be healed.”[21]

22Yeshua turned around, saw her, and told her, “Daughter, cheer up! Your trust has healed you.” And she was instantly healed.

23When Yeshua arrived at the official’s house and saw the flute players, and the crowd in noisy disorder,[23] 24He said to them, “Go away! The little girl isn’t dead, she’s sleeping.” They began deriding Him. 25But after the crowd had been put outside, He went in, took her by the hand, and she got up.

26News of this began to spread throughout all the region.

11. Two Blind Men Healed (9:27-31) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

 27As Yeshua was leaving there, two blind men followed him, calling out and saying, “Have mercy on us, Ben-David!”[27]

28When He entered the house,[28a] the house, the blind men came to Him. Yeshua asked them, “Do you believe that I have the power[28b] to do this?”

They told him, “Yes, sir.”

Then He touched their eyes and said, “Let it happen to you according to your trust,” and their sight was restored. Yeshua warned them severely, “Make sure no one knows about it.” Instead, they went away and talked about Him throughout that district.

12. A Demoniac Delivered (9:32-35) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

32As they were leaving, a man was brought to him who was mute because he was possessed by a demon. 33When the demon had been driven out, the man spoke, and the crowds were amazed. They said,  “Nothing like this has ever been seen in Yisra'el!”

34But the P'rushim said, “He casts out demons through the prince of demons.”

35Yeshua went about all the towns and the villages, teaching in their synagogues, and proclaiming the Good News of the Kingdom,[35] and healing every kind of disease and sickness among the people.

13. Compassion for the Multitudes (9:36-38) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

 36But when he saw the crowds, he was moved with compassion for them, because they were exhausted by their  troubles and scattered, like sheep without a shepherd.[36] 37Then he said to his talmidim, “The harvest indeed is plentiful, but the laborers are few. 38Pray therefore that ADONAI of the harvest will send out workers to gather in His harvest.”


B. Training the Twelve (chapters 10-12) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

1.  Their First Training Mission (chapter 10) [BACK TO OUTLINE]
a. Instructions for the Mission (10:1-15) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

10 1Having called to Himself His twelve talmidim,[1] Yeshua gave them authority over unclean spirits, to drive them out, and to heal every disease and every sickness. 2Now the names of the twelve emissaries[2a] are these. First, Shim`on, called Kefa,[2b] and Andrai his brother,[2c] Ya`akov Ben-Zavdai[2d] and Yochanan his brother,[2e] 3Philip[3a] and Bar-Talmai,[3b] T'oma[3c] and Mattityahu the tax-collector,[3d] Ya`akov Bar-Halfai[3e] and Taddai,[3f] 4Shim`on the Zealot,[4a] and Y'hudah the Sicarius,[4b] who betrayed him.

5Yeshua sent out these twelve after instructing them, “Don’t go into the area of the Goyim, and don’t enter into any town in Shomron.[5] 6Instead, go to the lost sheep of the house of Yisra'el.[6] 7As you go you are to proclaim, ‘The Kingdom of Heaven is at hand!’[7] 8Heal the sick, raise the dead, cleanse those afflicted with tzara'at,[8] and cast out demons. You have received without payment; give without payment. 9Don’t take any gold, silver, or copper in your money belts. 10Don’t take a pack for your trip; not two coats, not shoes, not a walking stick: a worker should be given the food he needs. 11Whatever town or village you enter, find out who is worthy, and stay there until you leave. 12As you enter the household, greet it with your ‘Shalom aleikhem!’[12] 13If the household is deserving, let your shalom[13] rest on it, but if it isn’t worthy, let your shalom return to you. 14If any household or town doesn’t welcome you or listen to your words, shake their dust from your feet as you leave.[14] 15Truly I tell you, on the Day of Judgment it will be more tolerable for the land of S'dom and 'Amora than for that town!

b. Warnings About Resistance to the Message (10:16-23) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

16“Pay attention! I’m sending you out like sheep in the midst of wolves. So be as prudent as snakes and as harmless as doves. 17But be cautious of men; they will deliver you up to courts[17] and scourge you in their synagogues. 18You will be brought before governors and kings because of Me, to be a witness to them and to the nations. 19But when they bring you to trial, don’t be worried about what to say or how to say it; when the time comes, you will be given what to say. 20It won't be you speaking; but the Spirit of your Father Who is speaking through you.

21“A brother will betray his brother to death, and the father his child. Children will turn against their parents and have them put to death. 22Everyone will hate you because of me, but whoever holds on[22a] to the end will be preserved from harm.[22b] 23But when they persecute you in one town, flee into the next; truly I tell you, you will not have gone through all the towns of Yisra'el before the Son of Man comes.[23]

c. Cost and Benefits of Discipleship (10:24-42) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

24“A talmid is not greater than his rabbi, nor is a slave greater than his master. 25It is enough for the talmid for him to become like his rabbi, and the slave like his master. Now, if they have called the master of the house Ba`al-Zibbul,[25a] how much more those of his household![25b] 26So don’t be afraid of them, for there is nothing covered that will not be revealed; and hidden that will not be known. 27What I tell you in the dark, speak in the light; and what you hear whispered in the ear, proclaim on the housetops. 28Don’t be afraid of those who kill the body, but are not able to kill the soul. Rather, fear him who is able to destroy both soul and body in Gei-Hinnom.[28]

29“Aren’t two sparrows sold for an assarion?[29a] Not one of them falls to the ground without your Father’s permissive will.[29b] 30As for you, the very hairs of your head are all numbered. 31So don’t be afraid. You are worth more than many sparrows. 32Everyone who acknowledges Me in the presence of others, I will also acknowledge him in the presence of My Father in heaven. 33But whoever disowns Me in the presence of others, I will also disown him in the presence of My Father in heaven.

34“Don’t think that I came to bring peace to the earth. I didn’t come to bring peace, but a sword. 35I came to set a man at odds against his father, a daughter against her mother, and a daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law. 36A man’s enemies will be those of his own household.[36] 37Anyone who loves father or mother more than Me is not worthy of Me; and anyone who loves son or daughter more than Me isn’t worthy of Me. 38Anyone who doesn’t take up his cross and follow after Me, isn’t worthy of Me.[38] 39Anyone who seeks his own life will lose it; and anyone who loses his life for My sake will find it. 40Anyone who receives you receives Me, and anyone who receives Me receives Him who sent Me. 41Anyone who receives a prophet just because he is a prophet will receive a prophet’s reward. Anyone who receives a tzaddik just because he is a tzaddik will receive a tzaddik’s reward. 42If someone gives just a cup of cold water to one of these little ones just because he is My talmid, truly I tell you he will in no way lose his reward.”[42]


2. Yeshua Eulogizes Yochanan the Immerser (11:1-19; Luke 7:18-35) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

11 1After Yeshua had finished instructing His twelve talmidim, He went from there to teach and proclaim in their cities.[1] 2Meanwhile, when Yochanan [the Immerser], who had been arrested and thrown in prison, heard what Mashiach had been doing, he sent two of his talmidim 3to ask Him, “Are you the one who is to come, or should we look for another?”[2]

4Yeshua answered them, “Go and tell Yochanan what you are hearing and seeing: 5the blind are seeing again, the lame are walking, those with tzara'at[5a] are being cleansed, the deaf are hearing,[5b] the dead are being raised up, and the poor are having good news preached to them.[5c] 6Anyone who is not offended because of Me is blessed.”

7As these men went on their way, Yeshua began to speak to the crowd about Yochanan: “What did you go out into the wilderness to see? A reed swaying in the wind? 8But what did you go out to see? A man dressed in soft clothing? Pay attention! Those who wear soft clothing are in king’s palaces. 9But what did you go out to see? To see a prophet? Yes, I tell you, and much more than a prophet. 10For this is the one about whom it is written, ‘Look! I am sending my messenger ahead of you; he will prepare your way before you.’[10] 11Truly I tell you that among those who are born of women there has not arisen anyone greater than Yochanan the Immerser; yet he who is least in the Kingdom of Heaven is greater than he [Yochanan]. 12From the days of Yochanan the Immerser until now, the Kingdom of Heaven have been suffering violence, and the violent have been seizing it by force. 13For all the Prophets and the Torah prophesied until Yochanan. 14If you are willing to accept it, this is Eliyahu, whose coming was prophesied.[14] 15If you have ears, then hear!

16“What can I compare this generation to? They’re like children sitting in the marketplaces, calling out to their playmates, 17‘We played the flute for you [happy music], but you didn’t dance; we sang a lament [sad music], but and you didn’t mourn!’ 18For Yochanan came neither eating nor drinking, and they say, ‘He has a demon.’ 19The Son of Man came eating and drinking, and they say, ‘Look! a glutton and a drunkard, a friend of tax collectors and sinners!’ But wisdom is justified by her actions.”

3. Yeshua Denounces Indifference (11:20-24) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

20Then He began to denounce the cities in which most of his miracles had been done, because they didn’t turn away from their sins. 21“Woe to you, Korazin! Woe to you, Beit-Tzaidah! If the miracles that were done in you had been done in Tyre and Sidon, they would have long ago put on sackcloth and ashes to show they had turned away from their sins. 22But I tell you, it will be more tolerable for Tyre and Sidon than for you on Judgment Day. 23And you, K'far-Nachum, will you be exalted in heaven? No, you will be brought down to Sh'ol.[23] For if the miracles had been done in Sodom that were done in you, it would have remained until this day. 24But I tell you that it will be more tolerable for the land of Sodom than for you on Judgment Day.”

4. A Call for Personal Discipleship (11:25-30) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

25Then Yeshua said, “I thank You, Father, Lord of heaven and earth, that You hid these things from the ‘wise’ and the ‘understanding,’ and revealed them to ‘infants’ [ordinary, unlearned people]. 26Yes, Father, I thank You that it pleased You to do this. 27My Father has handed everything over to Me. No one completely knows[27] the Son, except the Father; neither does anyone completely know the Father, except the Son, and those to whom the Son desires to reveal Him.

28“Come to me, all of you who are struggling and heavily burdened, and I will give you rest. 29Take my yoke upon you, and learn from me, for I am gentle and humble in heart; and you will find rest for your souls. 30For my yoke is easy, and my burden is light.”


5. Messiah is Lord of Shabbat (12:1-14) [BACK TO OUTLINE]
a. Yeshua Claims Lordship Over Shabbat (12:1-8; Mark 2:23-28; Luke 6:1-5) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

12 1On one Shabbar during that time Yeshua was walking through the grain fields. His talmidim were hungry and began to pluck heads of grain and to eat. 2When they saw this, the P'rushim said to Him, “Look! Your talmidim are doing something that is not lawful to do on Shabbat.”

3But He said to them, “Haven’t you read what David and those who were with him did when they were hungry? 4He entered into the House of God and ate the Bread of the Presence.[4] This was prohibited for both him and his companions to eat; it is permitted only for the cohenim! 5Or have you not read in the Torah that on Shabat the priests in the temple profane the Shabat, yet are blameless? 6But I tell you that One greater than the temple is here. 7If you had known what ‘I desire mercy, and not sacrifice’[7] means, you would not have condemned the blameless. 8For the Son of Man is Lord of the Sabbath.”[8]

b. Yeshua Proves Lordship Over Shabbat (12:9-13; Mark 3:1-5; Luke 6:6-11) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

9Going on from there, He went into their synagogue, 10where there was a man with a withered hand. Looking for a reason to accuse Him, they asked Him, “Is it permitted to heal on Shabbat?”

11He answered, “Which of you who has a sheep, if it falls into a pit on Shabbat, won’t grab it and lift it out? 12How much more valuable is a man than a sheep? Therefore, what is permitted on Shabbat is to do good.” 13Then he said to the man, “Hold out your hand.” He held it out, and it was restored, as good as the other hand.

c. The P'rushim Determine to Kill Yeshua (12:14; Mark 3:6) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

14But the P'rushim went out and began plotting against Him, how they might kill[14] Him.

6. Many Additional Healings (12:15-23; Mark 3:6-12) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

15Aware of their intent, Yeshua left that area. Many people followed Him, and He healed them all. 16But He warned them them not to make Him known, 17so that what was spoken through the prophet Yesha'yahu might be fulfilled:

18Here is My Servant, Whom I have chosen, my Beloved, with Whom I am well pleased; I will put My Spirit on Him, and He will announce justice to the Goyim 19He will not fight or shout, no one will hear His voice in the streets; 20He will not snap off a broken reed or snuff out a smoldering wick until he has brought justice through to victory. 21In him the Goyim will put their hope.[21]

22Some people brought Him a man who was possessed by demons who was blind and mute; and He healed him, so that he could both speak and see. 23The crowds were amazed, and said, “This can’t be the Son of David, can it?”[23]

7. P'rushim Blaspheme Ruach HaKodesh (12:24-30; Mark 3:22-30; Luke 11:14-23) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

24But when the P'rushim heard of it, they said, “It is only by Ba'al-Zibbul, the prince of the demons, that this man drives out demons.”[24]

25Knowing their thoughts, Yeshua said to them, “Every kingdom divided against itself is laid waste, and no city or house divided against itself will survive. 26If Satan drives out Satan, he is divided against himself; so how will his kingdom survive? 27If I drive out demons by Ba'al-Zibbul, by whom do your people drive them out? So they will be your judges! 28But if I drive out demons by the Spirit of God, then the Kingdom of God has come upon you! 29Or again, how can someone break into a strong man’s house and plunder his goods, unless he first binds the strong man? After that he can plunder his house. 30Anyone who is not with Me is against me, and anyone who doesn’t gather with Me, scatters.

8. The Unpardonable Sin (12:31-32; Mark 3:28-30) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

31That’s why I’m telling you that people will be forgiven every sin and blasphemy, except blasphemy against Ruach HaKidesh will not be forgiven. 32Whoever speaks against the Son of Man will be forgiven; but whoever keeps on speaking against Ruach HaKodesh will not be forgiven, neither in the `olam hazeh nor in the `olam haba.

9. Our Words Create Our Destiny (12:33-37) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

33“Either make the tree good, and its fruit good, or make the tree bad, and its fruit bad; for a tree is known [identified] by its fruit. 34You offspring of vipers, how can you speak good things when you are evil? For the mouth speaks out of the overflow of the heart. 35A good man produces good things from his storeroom of good, and an evil man produces evil things from his storeroom of evil. 36I’m telling you that on judgment Day people will have to give account of every careless word they speak. 37For by your words you will be acquitted, and by your words you will be condemned.”

10. The Sign of Jonah (12:38-41; Luke 11:29-32) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

38Then some of the Sofrim and P'rushim said to Him, “Rabbi, we want to see a sign from you.”

39But He answered them, “An evil and adulterous generation demands a sign? No sign will be given to it except the sign of Yonah the prophet.[39] 40For just as Yonah was three days and three nights in the belly of the great fish, so will the Son of Man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth. 41The people of Nineveh will stand up with this generation in the Judgment, and will condemn it, for they turned away from their sins and back to God at Yonah’s preaching; and look! Someone greater than Yonah is here.

11. The Sign of the Queen of Sheba (12:42; 2Chron. 9:1-12) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

42The queen of the South[42] will rise up in the judgment with this generation, and will condemn it, for she came from the ends of the earth to hear the wisdom of Shlomo; and look! Someone greater than Shlomo is here.

12. The Importance of Being Possessed by Ruach HaKodesh (12:43-45; Luke 11:24-26) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

43When an unclean spirit has gone out of a person, he travels passes through the waterless places seeking rest, but doesn’t find it. 44Then he says to himself, ‘I will return to the house I left.’ When he arrives he finds that house empty, swept, and put in order. 45Then he goes and takes with himself seven other spirits more evil than he is, and they come in and live there. Ultimately that man becomes worse off than he was originally. This is how it will be for this wicked generation.”[45]

13. True Relationships in the Kingdom (12:46-50; Mark 3:31-35; Luke 8:19-21) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

46While He was still speaking to the crowd, His mother and His brothers were standing outside, wanting to speak to Him. 47Someone said to Him, “Look, your mother and your brothers are standing outside and they want to speak to you.”

48But he answered the one who had said that to Him, “Who is my mother? Who are my brothers?” 49Then He stretched out his hand towards his talmidim, and said, “Look, see my mother and my brothers here? 50Whoever does the will of My Father in heaven, that’s who My brother, My sister, and My mother are.”


IV. Mysteries of the Kingdom (chapter 13) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

A. Mysteries Taught Through Parables (13:1-52) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

1. The Sower and the Soils (13:1-9; Mark 4:1-25; Luke 8:4-15) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

13 1Later that day Yeshua went out of the house, and sat by the seaside. 2A large crowd gathered around Him, so He got into a boat and sat, while the crowd stood on the beach. 3He said many things to them in parables,[1] saying, “Pay attention! A farmer went out to sow. 4As he sowed, some seeds fell by the roadside, and the birds came and ate them. 5Others seeds fell on rocky ground, where they didn’t have much soil, and immediately they sprang up, because the soil wasn’t very deep. 6When the sun had risen, they were scorched. Because they had no real roots, they withered away. 7Other seeds fell among thorns. The thorns grew up and choked them out. 8Still other seeds fell on rich soil, and yielded fruit: some one hundred times as much, some sixty, and some thirty times. 9Whoever has ears to hear, let him hear.”

a. The Parable Explained Privately (13:10-23) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

10The talmidim came and asked Yeshua, “Why are you speaking to them in parables?”

11He answered, “Because it has been given to you to know the mysteries[11] of the Kingdom of Heaven, but it has not been given to them. 12For whoever has something will be given more, so that he will have plenty; but whoever has nothing, even what he has will be taken away from him. 13This is why I speak to them in parables; because they  look, but they don’t see, and they listen but they don’t hear or understand. 14In them the prophecy of Yesha'yahu is fulfilled, in which he says:

‘You will keep on listening, yet never understand; you will keep on looking but never perceive. 15Because this people’s heart has grown callous; their ears are hard of hearing and they have closed their eyes; otherwise they might perceive with their eyes and hear with their ears, understand with their heart, and turn back, and I would heal them.’[15]

16“But your eyes are spiritually prosperous,[16] for they see; and so are your ears, for they hear. 17Truly I tell you that many a prophet and many a tzaddik longed to see the things that you are seeing, but didn’t see them; and to hear the things that you are hearing, but didn’t hear them.

18“Now listen to what the parable of the farmer means. 19Whoever hears the word of the Kingdom but doesn’t understand it is like the seeds that fell by the roadside; the Evil One comes and snatches away what has been sown in his heart. 20The seeds that were sown on the rocky ground is like a person who hears the message and immediately accepts it with with joy, 21but has no root in himself. So he stays on for a while; but as soon as trouble or persecution arises because of that message, he immediately falls away. 22The seeds that were sown among the thorns is like the one who hears the message, it is choked out by the worries of the world and the deceitfulness of wealth, so it produces nothing in him. 23However, the seeds that were sown on the the rich soil is the one who hears the message and understands it; this one surely bears fruit — some a hundred, some sixty, some thirty times as much as was sown.”

2. Tares Among Wheat (13:24-30) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

24Yeshua presented them with another parable. “The Kingdom of Heaven is like a man who sowed good seed in his field, 25but while people were sleeping his enemy came and sowed darnel[25] among the wheat, and went away. 26When the wheat sprouted and produced heads, the darnel also sprouted. 27The owner’s servants came to him and, ‘Sir, didn’t you sow good seed in your field? Where did this darnel come from?’

28“He answered them, ‘An enemy has done this.’

“So the servants asked, ‘Do you want us to go and pull them up?’

29“The owner said, ‘No, because while you pull up the darnel, you’ll pull up the wheat with them. 30Let both grow together until the harvest, then at harvest time I will tell the harvesters to first pull up the darnel and bundle them up to burn them, but to harvest the wheat into my barn.’”

3. The Mustard Seed (13:31-32; Mark 4:30-32) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

31He gave them another parable. “The Kingdom of Heaven is like a grain of mustard seed that a man took and sowed in his field. 32It is the smallest of all the seeds, but when it is grown, it is larger than all the herbs and becomes a tree, so that the birds come and nest in its branches.”

4. The Leaven (13:34; Luke 13:20-21) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

33He told them still another parable. “The Kingdom of Heaven is like yeast, which a woman hid in a bushel[33] of flour, then waited until all the dough rose.”

a. His Use of Parables Fulfilled Prophecy (13:34-35) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

34Yeshua told the crowd all these things in parables; and He didn’t speak to them except in a parable, 35so that which was spoken through the prophet would be fulfilled:

“I will open my mouth in parables; I will utter things hidden from the foundation of the world.[35]

b. The Parable of the Tares Explained Privately (13:36-43) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

36Then Yeshua sent the crowds away, and went into the house. His talmidim came to Him and asked, “Explain to us the parable of the darnel weeds in the field.”

37He answered, “The one who sows the good seed is the Son of Man and 38the field is the world. The good seed are the people who belong to the Kingdom and the darnel weeds are the people who belong to of the Evil One. 39The enemy who sowed them is the Adversary, the harvest is the end of the age, and the harvesters are angels. 40Just as the darnel weeds are gathered and burned up with fire, so will it be at the end of the age. 41The Son of Man will send out His angels, and they will collect out of His Kingdom everything that causes people to sin and all those who are without Torah, 42and they will throw them into the fiery furnace, where people will wail and gnash their teeth.[42] 43Then the righteous will shine forth like the sun in the Kingdom of their Father. Anyone who has ears, let him hear!

5. The Hidden Treasure (13:44) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

44“The Kingdom of Heaven is like a treasure hidden in the field. A man found it and hid it again. In his great joy he went and sold everything he owned, and bought that field.

6. The Pearl of Great Price (13:45-46) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

45“Again, the Kingdom of Heaven is a man who is merchant looking for fine pearls. 46When he found one one deceptionally valuable pearl he went, sold everything that he owned, and bought it.

7. The Dragnet (13:47-51) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

47“Once more, the Kingdom of Heaven is like a net that was cast into the lake and gathered all kinds of fish. 48When it was full the fishermen drew it up onto the beach. They sat down and gathered the good fish into containers, but threw away the bad fish. 49So will it be in the end of the age. The angels will go forth and separate the wicked from among the righteous, 50and will throw them into the fiery furnace, where they will wail and gnash their teeth.”

51“Have you understood all these things?” Yeshua asked them.

“Yes,” they answered Him.

8. The Homeowner (13:52) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

52Then He said to them, “So then, every Sofer who has been made into a talmid in the Kingdom of Heaven is like a homeowner who brings out of his storehouse both new and old things.”

B. The King Rejected in Nazareth (13:53-58; Mark 6:1-6) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

53When Yeshua had finished these parables, He left 54and went into His home town. There He taught them in their synagogue in a way that astonished them, so that they asked, “Where did this man’s wisdom miracles come from? 55Isn’t He the carpenter’s son? Isn’t His mother named Miryam, and his brothers, Ya'akov, Yeshua, Shim`on, and Y'hudah? 56Aren’t all of his sisters here with us? So where does He get all of these things?” 57And they took offense at Him.

But Yeshua said to them, “A prophet is not without honor, except in his own home town, and in his own house.” 58He did very few miracles there because of their unbelief.


V. Ministry of the King (chapters 14-20) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

A. Yochanan the Immerser Murdered (14:1-14; Mark 6:14-19; Luke 9:7-9) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

14 1At that time, Herod the tetrarch[1] heard the report concerning Yeshua, 2and said to his servants, “This is Yochanan the Immerser, who has risen from the dead. That is why these miraculous powers are at work in him.” 3For Herod had laid hold of Yochanan, and bound him, and put him in prison for the sake of Herodias, his brother Philip’s wife, 4because Yochanan had told him, “It is not lawful for you to have her.” 5Though he wanted to have him executed, he feared the the people because they considered him a prophet. 6But when Herod’s birthday came, the daughter of Herodias danced for the company and pleased Herod 7so much that he promised with an oath to give her whatever she would ask for. 8Prompted by her mother, she said, “Give me the head of Yochanan the Immerser here on a platter!”

9Although the king deeply regretted it, but because of his oaths and his guests, he commanded it to be granted. 10So he gave the command for Yochanan to be beheaded in the prison. 11His head was brought on a platter and given to the girl, and she brought it to her mother. 12His talmidim came, took the body, and buried it; then they went and told Yeshua.

13When Yeshua heard about it, He withdrew from there by boat to a remote place to be alone. But when the crowds heard it, they followed him on foot from the towns.

14As Yeshua stepped ashore he saw the large crowd. He had compassion on them and healed their sick.

B. Teaching in the Galil [BACK TO OUTLINE]

1. Five Thousand Fed (14:15-21; Mark 6:30-44; Luke 9:10-17; John 6:1-14) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

15When it was evening His talmidim came to Him and said, “This place is remote, and it’s getting late. Send the crouds away so they can go into the villages and buy themselves food.”

16But Yeshua answered them, “They don’t need to go away. You give them something to eat.”

17They told Him, “We only have here five loaves of bread and two fish.”

18He said, “Bring them here to me.” 19After He instructed the crowd to sit down on the grass, He took the five loaves of bread and the two fish and, looking up toward heaven, He made a b'rakhah.[19] Then He broke the loaves and and gave them to the talmidim, who gave them to the crowd. 20Everyone ate as much as they wanted, and they took up twelve baskets full of pieces that were left over.[20] 21The number who had eaten were about five thousand men, plus the women and children.[21]

2. The King Walks on Water (14:22-33) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

22Yeshua immediately had the talmidim get into the boat and go ahead of Him to the other side, while He sent the crowds away. 23After He had sent the crowds away, He went up onto the mountain by Himself to pray. When evening had come, He was there alone. 24But by this time the boat was now in the middle of the lake, battling waves and a strong headwind.[24] 25In the fourth watch of the night,[25a] Yeshua came to them, walking on the surface of the lake.[25b] 26When the talmidim saw Him walking on the lake, they were terrified. “It’s a ghost!” they screamed in fear. 27But Yeshua spoke to them at once. “Courage!” He said. “It is I![27] Don’t be afraid.”

28Kefa answered Him, “Lord,[28] if it’s You, command me to come to You on the water.”

29He said, “Come!”

Climbing out of the boar, Kefa started walking on the water toward Yeshua. 30But when he saw the strength of the wind he was afraid. And beginning to sink, he cried out, “Lord, save me!”

31Immediately Yeshua reached out His hand, caught hold of him, and said to him, “Oh, Little Faith,[31] why did you doubt?” 32When they got up into the boat, the wind ceased. 33Then those who were in the boat came and worshiped Him,[33] saying, “You are truly the Son of God!”

3. Healing at Ginosar (14:34-36; Mark 6:53-56) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

34Having made the crossing, they landed at Ginosar. 35When the people of that place recognized Him, they sent word throughout the area and brought everyone who was sick. 36They begged Him that the sick might be permitted to just touch the tzitzit[36] on his robe. Everyone who touched it was made completely well.


4. Torah vs. Tradition (15:1-9; Mark 7:1-13) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

15 1Then some P'rushim and Sofrim from Yerushalayim came to Yeshua and asked Him, 2“Why do your talmidim disobey the Tradition of the Elders? For they don’t wash their hands[2] before they eat.”

3Yeshua answered, “Really? Why do you disobey God’s commandment because of your tradition? 4For God commanded, ‘Honor your father and your mother,’[4a] and, ‘He who speaks evil of father or mother, let him be put to death.’[4b] 5But you say, ‘Anyone who tells his father or his mother, “Whatever help you might otherwise have gotten from me is a gift devoted to God,” 6he doesn’t need to honor his father or mother.’ You have nullified the word of God for the sake of your tradition. 7You hypocrites! Yesha'yahu was right about you when he prophesied,

8‘These people draw near to me with their mouth, and honor me with their lips; but their heart is far from me. 9And in vain do they worship me, teaching as doctrine rules made by men.’”[9]

5. Wickedness of the Heart (15:10-20; Mark 7:14-23) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

10He called the crowd to Him and said, “Listen and understand this!. 11It isn’t what goes into his mouth that makes a man unclean; what makes a man unclean is what what comes out of his mouth.”

12Then the talmidim came up and asked Him, “Do you know that the P'rushim were offended when they heard You say that?”

13But He answered, “Every plant that My heavenly Father didn’t plant will be uprooted. 14Leave them alone. They are blind guides of the blind. And if the blind guide the blind, both will fall into a pit.”

15Kefa said to Him, “Explain the parable to us.”

16“Don’y you understand yet? Yeshua asked. 17Don’t you realize that everything that goes into the mouth passes into the stomach, and then into the toilet? 18But whatever comes out of the mouth comes from the heart, and this makes the man unclean. 19For out of the heart come evil thoughts, murder, adultery, sexual sin, theft, false testimony, and slander. 20These are the things that make a man unclean; but eating without first performing the hand-washing ceremony certainly doesn’t make a man unclean.”

g. The Canaanite Woman’s Faith (15:21-28; Mark 7:24-30) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

21When Yeshua left there, He went into the region of Tyre and Sidon. 22Just then a Canaanite woman from that region came and kept crying out, “Lord, have mercy on me, Son of David![22] My daughter is severely tormented by a demon!”

23But He didn’t say a word to her. So His talmidim came and begged him, “Send her away because she’s crying after us.”

24He answered, “I was sent only to the lost sheep of the house of Yisra'el.”

25But she came and reverently knelt down[25] to Him, saying, “Lord, help me.”

26He answered, “It isn’t right to take the children’s food and throw it to the dogs.”

27But she said, “Yes, Lord, but even the dogs eat the crumbs which fall from their masters’ table.”

28Then Yeshua answered her, “O, woman, you have great faith! Be it done for you as you desire.” And her daughter was instantly healed.

7. More Healing (15:29-31; Mark 7:31-37) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

29Yeshua left there there and went along the shore of Lake Kinneret. He climbed up a hill and sat down.[29] 30Large crowds came to him, bringing the lame, blind, mute, maimed, and many others. They laid at His feet, and He healed them. 31The people were amazed when they saw the mute people speaking, maimed people made whole, lame people walking, and blind people seeing; and they glorified the God of Yisra'el.

8. Four Thousand Fed (15:32-39; Mark 8:1-9) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

32Yeshua called His talmidim to Him and said, “I’m concerned about this crowd. They’ve been with Me for three days now, and they don’t have anything to eat. I don’t want to send them away without eating, or they might faint from hunger on the way.”

33The talmidim said to Him, “Where would we get enough food in this remote place to satisfy this many people?”[33]

34Yeshua asked them, “How much food do you have?”

They said, “Seven loaves of bread, and a few small fish.”

35After instructing the crowd to sit down on the ground, 36He took the seven loaves and the fish, and made the b'rakhah. Then He broke them, and gave to the talmidim, and the talmidim served them to the crowd. 37Everyone ate their fill, then they gathered seven baskets full of the leftover pieces. 38The number who had eaten were four thousand men, plus the women and children.

 39After sending the crowd away, He got into the boat and went into the region of Magdala.


9. Hypocrites Rebuked (16:1-5; Mark 8:10-14) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

16 1Some P'rushim and Tz'dukim came to maliciously test Him[1] by asking Him to show them a sign from heaven. 2But he answered them, “When it is evening, you say, ‘It will be fair weather, because the sky is red.’ 3In the morning you say, ‘It will be foul weather today, because the sky is red and threatening.’ You know how to interpret the appearance of the sky, but you can’t interpret the signs of the times! 4A wicked and adulterous generation[4] is asking for a sign; but there will be no sign given to it except the sign of Yonah.” Then He left them and went away.

5The talmidim reached the other shore and had forgotten to take bread.

10. The Rebuke Explained (16:6-12; Mark 8:15-21) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

6When Yeshua said to them, “Take heed and beware of the yeast of the P'rushim and P'rushim,”

7they hought among themselves, it was because they hadn’t brouoght any bread with them.

8But Yeshua was aware of it and said, “Little Faiths, why are you talking among yourselves about having brought no bread?’ 9Don’t you understand yet? Don’t you remember the five loaves for the five thousand and how many baskets you filled? 10Or the seven loaves for the four thousand, and how many baskets you filled? 11How can it be that you don’t understand that I wasn’t talking about bread? But beware of the yeast of the P'rushim and Tz'dukim.”

12Then they understood that He wasn’t telling them to beware of the yeast for bread, but of the teaching of the P'rushim and Tz'dukim.

11. Kefa’s Confession (16:13-20; Mark 8:27-30; Luke 9:18-21) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

13When Yeshua came into the area around Caesarea Philippi, He asked his talmidim, “Who are people saying that the Son of Man is?”

14They said, “Some say Yochanan the Immerser, some say Eliyahu, and others, Yirmeyahu or one of the prophets.”

15“What about you?” He asked them. “Who do you say that I am?”

16Shim`on Kefa answered, “You are the Mashiach, the Son of the living God.”

17Yeshua answered him, “Shim`on Bar-Yonah,[17] you are blessed. No human has revealed this to you; it was My Father in heaven. 18I also tell you this: you are Petros[18a] [a Rock] and on this rock[18b] I will build My community, and the gates of Sheol[18c] will not prevail against it. 19I will give you the keys of the Kingdom of Heaven. Whatever you prohibit on earth will already have been prohibited in heaven; and whatever you permit on earth will already have been permitted in heaven.”[19] 20Then he warned the talmidim to tell no one that he was the Mashiach.

12. The King Foretells His Death and Resurrection (16:21-23; Mark 8:31-33; Luke 9:22) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

21From then on, Yeshua began making it clear to his talmidim that He had to go to Yerushalayim and endure much suffering at the hands of the elders, Cohenim Gadolim, and Sofrim; and that he had to killed; but that on the third He had to be raised to life.

22Kefa took him aside, and began to rebuke him, “God forbid it, Lord! This must never happen to you.”

23But Yeshua turned and said to Kefa, “Get behind me, Satan! You are a an obstacle in my path, because you are not thinking from God’s perspective, but only from a human perspective.”

13. The Cost of Discipleship (16:24-28; Mark 8:34-38; Luke 9:23-26) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

24Then Yeshua told His talmidim, “If anyone wants to come after me, he must say “No” to himself, take up his cross, and keep follow me. 25For whoever wants to save his own life will destroy it, and whoever destroys his life for my sake will find it. 26For what good will it do anyone if he gains the whole world, but forfeits his life? Or what can someone give in exchange for his life? 27For the Son of Man will come in the Sh'khinah[27a] of his Father with his angels, and then He will repay everyone according to his deeds.[27b] 28Truly I tell you, there are some standing here who will not taste death until they see the Son of Man coming in his Kingdom.”[28b]


14. The Transfiguration: the Kingdom Revealed (17:1-13; Mark 9:2-3; Luke 9:28-36) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

17 1Six days later Yeshua took Kefa, Ya'akov, and his brother Yochanan with Him, and led them up into a high mountain by themselves. 2He was transfigured before them. His face shone like the sun, and his clothing became as white as its light. 3And suddenly Moshe and Eliyahu and appeared to them, talking with Him.[3]

4Kefa said to Yeshua, “Lord, it is good for us to be here. If You want, let’s make three booths here: one for you, one for Moshe, and one for Eliyahu.”

5While He was still speaking, a bright cloud enveloped them, and a voice came out of the cloud, saying, “This is my beloved Son, with Whom I am well pleased. Listen to Him.”

6When the talmidim heard it, they fell on their faces, and were terrified. 7Yeshua came, touched them, and said, “Get up, and don’t be afraid.” 8When they looked up, they saw nobody except Yeshua. 9As they were coming down from the mountain, Yeshua commanded them, “Don’t tell anyone what you saw, until the Son of Man has risen from the dead.”

10His talmidim asked him, “Then why do the Sofrim say that Eliyahu must come first?”

11Yeshua answered, “Eliyahu does come first, and he will restore all things, 12but I’m telling you that Eliyahu has come already, and people didn’t recognize him, but did to him whatever they wanted to. In the same way, the Son of Man is about to suffer at their hands.” 13Then the talmidim understood that he was talking about Yochanan the Immerser.

15. An Object Lesson on Faith (17:14-21; Mark 9:14-29; Luke 9:37-43) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

14As they approached the crowd, a man came up to him, knelt down before Him, and said, 15“Lord, have mercy on my son, for he is epileptic, and has such serious seizures that he often falls into the fire or into the water. 16I brought him to your talmidim, but they couldn’t cure him.”

17Yeshua answered, “You unbelieving and perverted generation! How long will I be with you? How long will I put up with you? Bring him here to me.” 18Yeshua rebuked him, the demon came out of him, and the boy was immediately cured.

19Then the talmidim came to Yeshua privately, and asked, “Why weren’t we able to cast it out?”

20He said to them, “Because of your little faith. Truly I tell you, if you have faith only the size of mustard seed, you will tell this mountain, ‘Move from here to there,’ and it will move; nothing will be impossible for you. 21But this kind [of demon] doesn’t go out except though prayer and fasting.”

16. The King Again Foretells His Death and Resurrection (17:22-23; Mark 9:30-32; Luke 9:45-45) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

22While they were together in the Galil, Yeshua said to them, “The Son of Man is about to be betrayed to men 23who will kill Him, but on the third day He will be raised up.” They were extremely sad.

17. The Miracle of the Temple Tax (17:24-27; Mark 12:13-17) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

24When they had come to K'far-Nachum, the didrachma[24] collectors came to Kefa and asked him, “Doesn’t your rabbi pay the didrachma?” 25He said, “Yes.”

When he came into the house, Yeshua anticipated him, saying, “What do you think, Shim`on? From whom do the kings of the earth receive toll or tribute? From their sons, or from strangers?”

26Kefa said to him, “From strangers.”

Yeshua said to him, “so then, the sons are exempt. 27But, bust so we don’t cause offense, go down to the lake and cast a hook. Take the first fish that comes up. When you have opened its mouth, you’ll find a stater[27]. Take that, and give it to them for you and Me.”


18. Childlike Faith Required for Kingdom Citizenship (18:1-6; Mark 9:33-50; Luke 9:46-50) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

18 1Just the the talmidim came to Yeshua, asking, “Who is greatest in the Kingdom of Heaven?”

2Yeshua called a little child over to Him, set him among them, 3and said, “Truly I tell you, unless you change your attitude and become like little children, there is no way that you will ever enter into the Kingdom of Heaven. 4The greatest in the Kingdom of Heaven is whoever humbles himself as this little child. 5Whoever welcomes[5] one little child like this in my name welcomes Me; 6but whoever causes one of these little ones who believe in Me to stumble,[6] it would be better for him to have a huge millstone hung around his neck and be sunk in the open sea.

19. Parable of the Lost Sheep (18:7-14; Luke 14:3-7) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

7“Woe to the world because of its occasions of stumbling![6] It’s inevitable that occasions to stumble[6] will come, but woe to the person who causes those occasions! 8If your hand or your foot causes you to stumble,[6] cut it off and throw it away.[8] It’s better for you to enter into life maimed or crippled, rather than having two hands or two feet to be cast into the eternal fire. 9If your eye causes you to stumble,[6] pluck it out, and cast it from you. It is better for you to enter into life with one eye, rather than having two eyes to be cast into the Gehinnom of fire. 10See that you don’t treat one of these little ones disrespectfully. I’m telling you that in heaven their angels always see the face[10] of my Father who is in heaven. 11For the Son of Man has come to save[11] that which was lost.

12“What do you think? If a man has a hundred sheep, and one of them goes astray, doesn’t he leave the ninety-nine on the hillside and search for the stray? 13If he finds it, truly I tell you, he rejoices over it more than over the ninety-nine that didn’t stray. 14Even so, it is not the will of your Father in heaven that even one of these little ones perish.

20. Discipline and Restoration (18:15-35; Luke 17:3-4) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

15“If your brother sins against you, go show him his fault privately, just between you and him. If he listens to you, you have won your brother back. 16But if he doesn’t listen, take one or two more with you, so that every accusation will be confirmed by the testimony of two or three witnesses.[16] 17If he refuses to listen to them, tell it to the assembly. If he also refuses to listen to the assembly, treat him as you would a pagan or a tax collector.

18Truly I tell you that whatever you prohibit on earth will already have been prohibited in heaven, and whatever things you permit on earth will already have been permitted in heaven.[18] 19Again I tell you, that if two of you[19] agree on earth concerning anything that they ask about, it will be done for them by my Father who is in heaven. 20For where two or three are joined together in My name [for the purpose of deciding Messianic halakhah or for settling disputes between Believers], I am their in their midst.”[20]

21Then Kefa came and said to him, “Lord, how often can my brother sin against me, and I have to forgive him? As many as seven times?”

22“No, not seven times,” Yeshua answered, “rather seventy times seven! 23The Kingdom of Heaven is like a certain king, who wanted to reconcile accounts with his servants. 24When he had begun to reconcile, a man was brought to him who owed him ten thousand talents.[24] 25But because he couldn’t pay, his master ordered that hem was to be sold, along with his wife, his children, and everything that he had, to pay the debt. 26But servant fell down and knelt before him, saying, ‘Lord, have patience with me, and I will repay you everything!’ 27The servant’s master was moved with compassion, released him, and forgave him the debt.

28“But that servant went out and found one of his fellow servants, who owed him one hundred denarii,[28] and he grabbed him and started choking him, ‘Pay me what you owe!’

29“So his fellow servant fell down at his feet and begged him, ‘Have patience with me, and I will pay you back!’ 30He refused and had him thrown into prison until he could pay back what he owed. 31When his fellow servants saw what he had done, they were very grieved, and reported to their master what had been done. 32Then his master called him in, and said to him, ‘You wicked servant! I forgave you all that debt, because you begged me. 33Shouldn’t you also have had mercy on your fellow servant, just as I had mercy on you?’ 34His master was angry and turned him over to the jailers[34] until he paid everything he owed. 35My heavenly Father will do the same to you, if you don’t forgive your brother from your heart.”


C. Teaching in Judea Beyond the Jordan (chapters 19 and 20) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

1. Divorce, Adultery, and Celibacy (19:1-12; Mark 10:1-12) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

19 1When Yeshua had finished this teaching He left the Galil, and came to the region of Y'hudah beyond the Yardan. 2Large crowds followed Him, and he healed them there. 3Some P'rushim came to test Him, asking, “Is it lawful for a man to divorce his wife for any reason?”

4He answered them, “Haven’t you read that the One Who created them in the beginning made them male and female,[4] 5and said, ‘For this cause a man will leave his father and mother and be joined to his wife, and the two will become one flesh?’[5] 6So they are no longer two, but one flesh. Therefore, what therefore God has joined together, man must not separate.”

7They asked Him, “Then why did Moshe command us to give her a writ of divorce and send her away?”

8He answered, “Moshe allowed you to divorce your wives because of the hardness of your hearts, but it was not like that in the beginning. 9What I’m telling you is that whoever divorces his wife for any reason except sexual immorality, and marries another, is committing adultery; and anyone who marries her after she has been divorced is committing adultery.”[9]

10His talmidim said to Him, “If that’s the case between a man and his wife, it’s better not to get married.”

11He answered, “Not all men can accept this teaching; only those for whom it is intended. 12[There are many reasons not to get married.] Some men are born [without sexual desire], some have been castrated; but some choose to remain celibate for the sake of the Kingdom of Heaven. Whoever is able to accept this, let him do so.”

2. The Rabbi Blesses the Children (19:13-15; Mark 10:13-16; Luke 18:15-17) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

13Some little children were brought to Him so He could lay his hands on them and pray; but the talmidim rebuked the people who brought them. 14But Yeshua said, “Let the children come; don’t stop them from coming to Me. The Kingdom of Heaven belongs to ones who are like these.” 15He laid His hands on them, and then He left.

3. A Rich Young Man (19:16-26; Mark 10:17-27; Luke 18:18-17) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

16Someone came to Him and asked, “Rabbi, what good thing do I need to do to have eternal life?”[16]

17He said to him, Why are you asking me about what’s good? There is only One who is good. But if you want to enter into life, keep the mitzvot.”

18Then he asked Him, “Which ones?”

Yeshua said, “‘Don’t murder.’ ‘Don’t commit adultery.’ ‘Don’t steal.’ ‘Don’t give false testimony.’ 19‘Honor your father and mother.’[19a] And, ‘You shall love your neighbor as yourself.’”[19b]

20The young man said to Him, “I have kept all these things. What do I still lack?”[20]

21Yeshua said to him, “If you want to be complete,[21a] go sell your possessions and give to the poor,[21b] and you will have treasure in heaven;[21c] and come, follow me.” 22But when the young man heard this, he went away sad, for he was very wealthy. 23Then Yeshua said to his talmidim, “Truly I tell you, it’s hard for a rich man to enter the Kingdom of Heaven. 24Again I tell you, it is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle[24a] than for a rich man to enter the Kingdom of God.”[24b]

25When the talmidim heard this, they were amazed, and asked, “Then, who then can be saved?”[25]

26Looking at them, Yeshua said, “With man it is impossible; but with God everything is possible.”

4. What’s In It For Me? (19:27-30; Mark 10:28-31; Luke 18:28-30) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

27Then Kefa said to Him, “Look, we have left everything and followed you. What then will there be for us?”

28Yeshua said to them, “Truly I tell you that in the regeneration[28a], when the Son of Man sits on His glorious[28b] throne, you who have followed Me will also sit on twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Yisra'el. 29Everyone who has left houses or brothers or sisters or father or mother or children or lands for My name’s sake will receive many times as much, and will inherit eternal life. 30But many who are first will be last; and many who are last will be first.


5. Parable of the Laborers (20:1-16) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

20 1“For the Kingdom of Heaven is like a landowner who went out early in the morning to hire laborers for his vineyard. 2When he had agreed with the laborers for a denarius[2] a day, he sent them into his vineyard. 3He went out about the third hour,[3] and saw others standing idle in the marketplace. 4He told them, ‘You go into the vineyard also, and I will pay you whatever is right.’ So they went. 5Again he went out about the sixth and the ninth hour,[5] and did the same thing. 6About the eleventh hour[6] he went out, and found others standing idle. He asked them, ‘Why do you stand here all day idle?’

7“They said to him, ‘Because no one has hired us.’

“He told them, ‘You to the vineyard, too, and I will pay you whatever is right.’ 8When evening had come, the owner of the vineyard said to his manager, ‘Call the laborers and pay them their wages, beginning with the last group to the first.’

9“When those who were hired at about the eleventh hour came, they each received a denarius. 10When the first group came, they assumed that they would receive more, but they also each received a denarius. 11When they received it, they complained to the landowner, 12‘These last group worked only an hour, and you have made them equal to those of us who have borne the brunt of the heat of the day!’

13“But he answered one of them, ‘Friend, I’m not being unfair to you. Didn’t you agree with to work today for a denarius? 14Take what’s yours, and go. I choose to give the last man just as much as I gave you. 15Don’t I have the right to do what I want to with what I own? Or do you begrudge my generosity?’ 16So the last will be first, and the first will be last. For many are called, but few are chosen.”

6. The King Again Foretells His Death and Resurrection (20:17-19; Mark 10:32-32; Luke 18:31-34) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

17As Yeshua was going up to Yerushalayim, he took the twelve talmidim aside, and on the way he said to them, 18“Look, we are going up to Yerushalayim. And the Son of Man will be delivered to the Cohenim Gadolim and Sofrim. They will condemn him to death, 19and will hand him over to the goyim to be mocked, scourged, and crucified. But He will be resurrected on the third day.”

7. A Mother’s Request (20:20-28; Mark 10:35-45) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

20Then the mother of the sons of Zavdai approached Him with her sons. She knelt down to ask Him for something. 21“What do you want?” He asked her.

She said to Him, “Promise me that my two sons may sit, one on Your right and the other on Your left in Your Kingdom.”[21]

22But Yeshua answered, “You don’t know what you’re asking. Are you able to drink the cup that I am about to drink?

They said to Him, “We are able.”

23He said to them, “You will indeed drink My cup, but to sit at My right and left is not Mine to grant; it is for those for whom Father has prepared it.”

24When the ten heard it, they were indignant with the two brothers.

25But Yeshua summoned them and said, “You know that the rulers of the nations become tyrants, and those in authority become dictators. 26It’s not to be like that among you. Rather whoever wants to become great among you must be your servant, 27and whoever wants to be first among you must be your slave, 28even as the Son of Man came not to be served, but to serve, and to give His life as a ransom for many.”

8. Two Blind Men Restored (20:29-32; Mark 10:46-52) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

29As they were leaving Jericho, a large crowd was following Him. 30There were two blind men sitting near the road, and when they heard that Yeshua was passing by, they cried out, “Lord, have mercy on us, Son of David!” 31The crowd rebuked them and told them to be quiet, but they cried out even more, “Lord, have mercy on us, Son of David!”

32Yeshua stopped, called out to them, and asked, “What do you want Me to do for you?”

33They told Him, “Lord, we want our eyes to be opened.”

34Moved with compassion, Yeshua touched their eyes; and immediately they regained their sight and followed Him.


VI. The King’s Last Week (Chapters 21 - 27) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

A. The King Enters Jerusalem (21:1-11; Mark 11:1-10; Luke 19:29-38; John 12:12-9) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

21 1As they were nearing Yerushalayim, they came to Beit-Pagei,[1] near the Mount of Olives. Yeshua sent two talmidim, 2telling them, “Go into the village up ahead, and immediately you will find a donkey tied, and a colt with her. Untie them, and bring them to Me. 3If anyone says anything to you, tell them, ‘The Lord needs them,’ and he will send them at once.”

4This was done so what was spoken by the prophet might be fulfilled,

5“Tell the daughter of Tziyon, Look! Your King is coming to you, riding humbly on a donkey; even on a colt, the foal of a donkey.”[5]

6So the talmidim went and did just as Yeshua instructed them. 7They brought the donkey and the colt, and laid their clothes on them; and Yeshua sat on them. 8Most of the crowd spread their clothes on the road. Others cut branches from the trees and spread them on the road. 9The crowds who went before Him, and those who followed, kept shouting, “Please, Deliver us,[9a] Son of David! Baruch haba b'shem ADONAI![9b] [Blessed is He who comes in the name of ADONAI!] You in the highest heaven, please! Deliver us!”[9a]

10When He entered Yerushalayim, the whole city was stirred up, saying, “Who is this?” 11The crowds said, “This is the prophet, Yeshua, from Natzeret of the Galil.”[10]

B. Final Teaching in Jerusalem [BACK TO OUTLINE]

1. The King Cleanses His Temple (21:12-17; Mark 11:15-18; Luke 19:45-47) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

12Yeshua entered the Temple and drove out all of those who sold and bought in the temple, and overthrew the money changers’ tables and the seats of those who sold the doves. 13He said to them, “It is written, ‘My house shall be called a house of prayer,’[13a] but you have made it a den of robbers!”[13b]

14The blind and the lame came to Him in the Temple, and He healed them. 15But when the Cohenim Gadolim and the Sofrim saw the wonderful things that he did, and the children who were crying in the temple and saying, “Please, Deliver us,[9a] Son of David!” they were indignant, 16and said to Him, “Do you hear what these are saying?”

Yeshua said to them, “Of course! Haven’t you ever read, ‘From the mouth of children and infants you have prepared praise for yourself’?”[16] 17Then He left them, and went out of the city into Beit-Anyah and spent the night there.

2. The Barren Fig Tree (21:18-22; Mark 11:12-14, 20-26) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

18The next morning, as He was returning to the city, He felt hungry. 19Seeing a fig tree by the road, He went up to it, and found nothing on it but leaves. He said to it, “May you never bear fruit again!” Immediately the fig tree dried up.[19] 20When the talmidim saw it, they were amazed, and asked Him, “How did the fig tree immediately wither away?”

21Yeshua answered them, “Truly I tell you, if you have faith, and don’t doubt, you will not only do what was done to the fig tree, but even if you told this mountain, ‘Be taken up and cast into the sea,’ it would be done. 22All things, whatever you ask in prayer, believing, you will receive.”

3. The King’s Authority Challenged (21:23-27; Mark 11:27-33; Luke 20:1-8) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

23When he had come into the Temple, the Cohenim Gadolim and the elders of the people came to Him as he was teaching, and said, “By what authority[23] do you do these things? Who gave you this authority?”

24Yeshua answered them, “First I’ll ask you one question, and if you answer I’ll tell you by what authority I do these things. 25The immersion of Yochanan, where was it from? From heaven or from men?”

They reasoned among themselves, “If we say, ‘From heaven,’ He’ll ask us, ‘Why didn’ you believe him, then?’ 26But if we say, ‘From men,’ we’d be in fear of the people, because they all hold Yochanan as a prophet.” 27They answered Yeshua, “We don’t know.”

He said to them, “So I won’t tell you by what authority I do these things.

4. Parable of Two Sons (21:28-32) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

28But what do you think? A man had two sons, and he came to the first, and said, ‘Son, go work today in my vineyard.’ 29He answered, ‘I will not,’ but afterward he changed his mind, and went. 30He came to the second, and said the same thing. He answered, ‘I go, sir,’ but he didn’t go. 31Which of the two did the will of his father?”

They said to him, “The first.”

Yeshua said to them, “Most certainly I tell you that the tax collectors and the prostitutes are entering into the Kingdom of God before you. 32For Yochanan came to you in the way of righteousness, and you didn’t believe him, but the tax collectors and the prostitutes believed him. When you saw it, you didn’t even repent afterward, that you might believe him.

5. Parable of the Homeowner (21:33-41; Mark 12:1-9; Luke 20:9-19) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

33“Hear another parable. There was a man who was a master of a household, who planted a vineyard, set a hedge about it, dug a winepress in it, built a tower, leased it out to farmers, and went into another country. 34When the season for the fruit drew near, he sent his servants to the farmers, to receive his fruit. 35The farmers took his servants, beat one, killed another, and stoned another. 36Again, he sent other servants more than the first: and they treated them the same way. 37But afterward he sent to them his son, saying, ‘They will respect my son.’ 38But the farmers, when they saw the son, said among themselves, ‘This is the heir. Come, let’s kill him, and seize his inheritance.’ 39So they took him, and threw him out of the vineyard, and killed him. 40So when the lord of the vineyard comes, what will he do to those farmers?”

41They told him, “He will miserably destroy those miserable men, and will lease out the vineyard to other farmers, who will give him the fruit in its season.”

6. Authority of False Priests Revoked (21:42-46) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

42Yeshua said to them, “Did you never read in the Tanakh,

‘The stone which the builders rejected was made the head of the corner. This was from ADONAI. It is marvelous in our eyes?’[42]

43“Therefore I tell you, the Kingdom of God will be taken away from you, and will be given to a nation bringing forth its fruit. 44He who falls on this stone will be broken to pieces, but on whoever it will fall, it will scatter him as dust.”

45When the Cohenim Gadolim and the P'rushim heard his parables, they perceived that he spoke about them. 46When they sought to seize him, they feared the multitudes, because they considered Him to be a prophet.


7. Parable of the Marriage Feast (22:1-14; Luke 14:16-24) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

22 1Yeshua answered and spoke again in parables to them, saying, 2“The Kingdom of Heaven is like a certain king, who made a marriage feast for his son, 3and sent out his servants to call those who were invited to the marriage feast, but they would not come. 4Again he sent out other servants, saying, ‘Tell those who are invited, “Look, I have made ready my dinner. My cattle and my fatlings are killed, and all things are ready. Come to the marriage feast!”’ 5But they made light of it, and went their ways, one to his own farm, another to his merchandise, 6and the rest grabbed his servants, and treated them shamefully, and killed them. 7When the king heard that, he was angry, and sent his armies, destroyed those murderers, and burned their city.

8“Then he said to his servants, ‘The wedding is ready, but those who were invited weren’t worthy. 9Go therefore to the intersections of the highways, and as many as you may find, invite to the marriage feast.’ 10Those servants went out into the highways, and gathered together as many as they found, both bad and good. The wedding was filled with guests. 11But when the king came in to see the guests, he saw there a man who didn’t have on wedding clothing, 12and he said to him, ‘Friend, how did you come in here not wearing wedding clothing?’ He was speechless. 13Then the king said to the servants, ‘Bind him hand and foot, take him away, and throw him into the outer darkness; there is where the weeping and grinding of teeth will be.’ 14For many are called, but few chosen.”

8. The King Answers the Herodians (22:15-22; Mark 12:13-17; Luke 20:20-26) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

15Then the P'rushim went and took counsel how they might entrap him in his talk. 16They sent their talmidim to Him, along with the Herodians,[16] saying, “Rabbi, we know that you are honest, and teach the way of God in truth, no matter who you teach, for you aren’t partial to anyone. 17So tell us what you think. Is it lawful to pay taxes to Caesar, or not?”

18But Yeshua perceived their wickedness, and said, “Why do you test me, you hypocrites? 19Show me the tax money.”

They brought to him a denarius.

20He asked them, “Whose image and inscription are these?”

21They said to him, “Caesar’s.”

Then he said to them, “So give Caesar the things that are Caesar’s, and give God the things that are God’s.”

22When they heard it, they marveled, and left him, and went away.

9. The King Answers the Tz'dukim (22:23-33; Mark 12:18-27; Luke 20:27-38) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

23That same day some Tz'dukim, (who say that there is no resurrection, came to Him and asked, 24“Rabbi, Moshe said, ‘If a man dies leaving no children, his brother is to marry his wife to provide descendants for his brother.’ 25Now there were with us seven brothers. The first married and died, and leaving no child, left his wife to his brother. 26The same happened with the second and third, clear to the seventh brother. 27The woman died after all of them. 28So, in the resurrection, of the seven brothers, whose wife will she be? For they were all married to her.”

29But Yeshua answered them, “You are mistaken, because you don’t know either the Tanakh or the power of God. 30For in the resurrection they neither marry, nor are they given in marriage, but are like God’s angels in heaven.[30] 31But concerning the resurrection of the dead, haven’t you read what God said to you? He said, 32‘I am the God of Avraham, and the God of Yitz'chak, and the God of Ya'akov?’[32] God is not the God of the dead, but of the living.”

33When the crowds heard this, they were astonished at His teaching.

10. The King Answers the P'rushim (22:34-40; Mark 12:28-34; Luke 10: 25-28) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

34But the P'rushim got together when they heard that he had silenced the Sadducees. 35One of them, a Torah scholar, asked Him a question to test Him. 36“Rabbi, which is the greatest commandment in the Torah?”

37Yeshua said to him, “‘You shall love ADONAI your God with all your heart, with all your soul, and with all your mind.’[37] 38This is the first and greatest commandment. 39The second is this, ‘You shall love your neighbor as yourself.’[39] 40The whole of the Torah and the Prophets depend on these two mitzvot.”

11. The King Quizzes the P'rushim About Messiah (22:41-46; Mark 12:35-37; Luke 20:41-44) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

41Now while the P'rushim were gathered together, Yeshua asked them a question, 42“What do you think of the Mashiach? Whose Son is He?”

They said to Him, “David’s.”

43Yeshua asked them, “Then how then does David, speaking in the Spirit call him Lord, saying,

44‘ADONAI said to my Lord, sit on my right hand until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet?’[44]

45“If David calls Him Lord, how is He David’s son?”

46No one was able to answer Him at all, nor did anyone dare to ask Him any more questions from then on.


12. The King Condemns Legalism (23:1-12; Mark 12:38-40; Luke 20:45-47) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

23 1Then Yeshua spoke to the crowds and to His talmidim, 2“The Sofrim and the P'rushim sit on Moshe’ seat. 3So everything they tell you to observe, whatever it is, observe and do it, but don’t do as they do; for they say, and don’t do. 4For they bind heavy burdens that are grievous to be borne, and lay them on men’s shoulders; but they themselves will not lift a finger to help them. 5But everything they do, they do only to be seen by men. They make their tefillin[5a] broad, enlarge their tzitziot[5b], 6and love the place of honor at feasts, the best seats in the synagogues, 7the salutations in the marketplaces, and to be called ‘Rabbi, Rabbi’ by men. 8But don’t you be called ‘Rabbi,’ for only one is your Rabbi, the Mashiach, and all of you are brothers.[8] 9Don’t call any man on the earth your father, for only one is your Father, He Who is in heaven.[9] 10Neither be called masters, for only one is your Master, the Mashiach.[10] 11But the one who is greatest among you will be your servant. 12Whoever exalts himself will be humbled, and whoever humbles himself will be exalted.

13. The King Pronounces Seven Woes (23:13-36; Mark 12:38-40; Luke 20:47) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

13“Woe to you[13], Sofrim and P'rushim, hypocrites! For you devour widows’ houses, and as a pretense you make long prayers. Therefore you will receive greater condemnation.

14“But woe to you[13], Sofrim and P'rushim, hypocrites! Because you shut up the Kingdom of Heaven against men; for you don’t enter in yourselves, neither do you allow those who are entering in to enter.

15Woe to you, Sofrim and P'rushim, hypocrites! For you travel around by sea and land to make one proselyte; and when he becomes one, you make him twice as much of a son of Gehinnom as yourselves.

16“Woe to you, you blind guides, who say, ‘Whoever swears by the Temple, that doesn’t count for anything; but whoever swears by the gold of the Temple is obligated to keep that oath.’ 17You blind fools! For which is greater, the gold, or the Temple that sanctifies the gold? 18‘Whoever swears by the altar, that doesn’t count for anything; but whoever swears by the gift that is on it is obligated to keep his oath?’ 19You blind fools! For which is greater, the gift, or the altar that sanctifies the gift? 20Therefore, whoever swears by the altar, swears by it, and by everything on it. 21Whoever swears by the Temple, swears by it, and by Him Who was living in it. 22Whoever swears by heaven swears by the throne of God, and by Him Who sits on it.

23“Woe to you, Sofrim and P'rushim, hypocrites! For you tithe mint, dill, and cumin[23], and leave undone the more important matters of the Torah: justice, mercy, and faith. But you ought to have done these, and not to have left the other undone. 24You blind guides, who strain out a gnat, and swallow a camel!

25“Woe to you, Sofrim and P'rushim, hypocrites! For you clean the outside of the cup and of the platter, but within they are full of extortion and unrighteousness.[25] 26You blind P'rush, first clean the inside of the cup and of the platter, that its outside may become clean also.

27“Woe to you, Sofrim and P'rushim, hypocrites! For you are like whitewashed tombs,[27] which appear beautiful on the outside, but on the inside are full of dead men’s bones, and of all uncleanness. 28Even so you also outwardly appear righteous to men, but inwardly you are full of hypocrisy and iniquity.

29“Woe to you, Sofrim and P'rushim, hypocrites! For you build the tombs of the prophets, and decorate the tombs of the righteous, 30and say, ‘If we had lived in the days of our fathers, we wouldn’t have been partakers with them in the blood of the prophets.’ 31Therefore you testify to yourselves that you are sons of those who killed the prophets. 32Fill up, then, the measure of your fathers. 33You serpents, you offspring of vipers, how will you escape the judgment of Gehinnom? 34Therefore, Pay attention! I send[34] prophets, wise men, and Sofrim to you. Some of them you will kill and crucify; and some of them you will scourge in your synagogues, and persecute from city to city; 35that on you may come all the righteous blood shed on the earth, from the blood of righteous Abel to the blood of Zechariah son of Berechiah, whom you killed between the sanctuary and the altar. 36Most certainly I tell you, all these things[36] will come upon this generation.

14. The King Weeps Over Jerusalem (23:37-39; Luke 13:34-35) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

37“Yerushalayim, Yerushalayim, who kills the prophets and stones those who are sent to her! How often I would have gathered your children together, even as a hen gathers her chicks under her wings, but you would not! 38Behold, your house is left to you desolate. 39For I tell you, you will not see me from now on, until you say, ‘Baruch haba b'shem ADONAI! Blessed is He Who comes in the name of ADONAI!’”[39]


C. The King Foretells His Return (Olivet Seminar) (chapters 24 and 25) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

1. The Temple to Be Destroyed (24:1-2; Mark 13;1-2; Luke 21; 5-6) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

24 1Yeshua went out from the Temple, and was going on his way. His talmidim came to Him to show Him the buildings of the Temple. 2But he answered them, “You see all of these things, don’t you? Most certainly I tell you, there will not be left here one stone on another, that will not be thrown down.”

2. The Talmidim’s Question (24:3-4; Mark 13:3-4; Luke 21:7) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

3As he sat on the Mount of Olives, the talmidim came to him privately, saying, “Tell us, when will these things be? What is the sign of your coming, and of the end of the age?”

3. Signs of the Acharit-HaYamim (24:4-14; Mark 13:5-13; Luke 21:8-11) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

4Yeshua answered them, “Be careful that no one leads you astray. 5For many will come in my name, saying, ‘I am the Mashiach,’ and will lead many astray. 6You will hear of wars and rumors of wars. See that you aren’t troubled, for all this must happen, but the end is not yet. 7For nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom; and there will be famines, plagues, and earthquakes in various places. 8But all these things are the beginning of birth pains. 9Then they will deliver you up to oppression, and will kill you. You will be hated by all of the nations for my name’s sake. 10Then many will stumble, and will deliver up one another, and will hate one another. 11Many false prophets will arise, and will lead many astray. 12Because iniquity will be multiplied, the love of many will grow cold. 13But he who endures to the end will be saved. 14This Good News of the Kingdom will be preached in the whole world for a testimony to all the Goyim, and then the end will come.

4. The Abomination of Desolation (24:15-20; Mark 13:14-18; Luke 21:20-23) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

15“Therefore, when you see the Abomination of Desolation,[15] which was spoken of through Daniel the prophet, standing in the holy place (let the reader understand), 16then let those who are in Y'hudah flee to the mountains. 17Let him who is on the housetop not go down to take out things that are in his house. 18Let him who is in the field not return back to get his clothes. 19But woe to those who are with child and to nursing mothers in those days! 20Pray that your flight will not be in the winter, nor on a Sabbath.

5. The Great Tribulation (24:21-28; Mark 13:19-23; Luke 21:23-24) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

21Then there will be great oppression, such as has not been from the beginning of the world until now, no, nor ever will be. 22Unless those days had been shortened, no flesh would have been saved. But for the sake of the chosen ones, those days will be shortened.

23“Then if any man tells you, ‘Look, here is the Mashiach,’ or, ‘There,’ don’t believe it. 24For there will arise false Mashiachs, and false prophets, and they will show great signs and wonders, so as to lead astray, if possible, even the chosen ones.[24]

25“Pay attention! I have told you beforehand. 26If therefore they tell you, ‘Look, he is in the wilderness,’ don’t go out; ‘Look, he is in the inner chambers,’ don’t believe it. 27For as the lightning flashes from the east, and is seen even to the west, so will be the coming of the Son of Man. 28For wherever the carcass is, there is where the vultures gather together.

6. The King’s Return to Earth (24:29-31; (Mark 13:24-27; Luke 21:29-33) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

29But immediately after the oppression of those days, the sun will be darkened, the moon will not give its light, the stars will fall from the sky, and the powers of the heavens will be shaken;[29] 30and then the sign of the Son of Man will appear in the sky. Then all the tribes of the earth will mourn, and they will see the Son of Man coming on the clouds of the sky with power and great Sh'khinah. 31He will send out his angels with a great sound of a shofar, and they will gather together his chosen ones from the four winds, from one end of the sky to the other.

7. Parable of the Fig Tree (24:32-35; Mark 13:28-31; Luke 21:29-33) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

3032“Now learn this parable from the fig tree. When its branch has now become tender, and puts forth its leaves, you know that the summer is near.[32] 33Even so you also, when you see all these things, know that it is near, even at the doors. 34Most certainly I tell you, this generation [Yisra'el, not those who were living at the time] will not pass away, until all these things are accomplished. 35Heaven and earth will pass away, but my words will not pass away.

8. A Warning for Watchfulness (24:36-51; Mark 13:32-37; Luke 21;34-36) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

36But no one knows of that day and hour, not even the angels of heaven, but my Father only.[36]

37“As the days of Noach were, so will be the coming of the Son of Man. 38For as in those days which were before the flood they were eating and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, until the day that Noach entered into the ship, 39and they didn’t know until the flood came, and took them all away [to judgment], so will be the coming of the Son of Man. 40Then two men will be in the field: one will be taken [to judgment] and one will be left; 41two women grinding at the mill, one will be taken [to judgment] and one will be left. 42Watch therefore, for you don’t know in what hour your Lord comes. 43But know this, that if the master of the house had known in what watch of the night the thief was coming, he would have watched, and would not have allowed his house to be broken into. 44Therefore also be ready, for in an hour that you don’t expect, the Son of Man will come.

45“Who then is the faithful and wise servant, whom his lord has set over his household, to give them their food in due season? 46Blessed is that servant whom his lord finds doing so when he comes.[46 appointed teachers are teaching] 47Most certainly I tell you that He will set him over all that he has. 48But if that evil servant should say in his heart, ‘My lord is delaying his coming,’ 49and begins to beat his fellow servants, and eat and drink with the drunkards, 50The Lord of that servant will come in a day when he doesn’t expect it, and in an hour when he doesn’t know it, 51and will cut him in pieces, and appoint his portion with the hypocrites. There is where the weeping and grinding of teeth will be.


9. Parable of Ten Virgins (25:1-13) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

25 1“Then the Kingdom of Heaven will be like ten virgins, who took their lamps, and went out to meet the bridegroom. 2Five of them were foolish, and five were wise. 3Those who were foolish, when they took their lamps, took no oil with them, 4but the wise took oil in their vessels with their lamps. 5Now while the bridegroom delayed, they all slumbered and slept. 6But at midnight there was a cry, ‘Look! The bridegroom is coming! Come out to meet him!’ 7Then all those virgins arose, and trimmed their lamps. 8The foolish said to the wise, ‘Give us some of your oil, for our lamps are going out.’ 9But the wise answered, saying, ‘What if there isn’t enough for us and you? You go rather to those who sell, and buy for yourselves.’ 10While they went away to buy, the bridegroom came, and those who were ready went in with him to the marriage feast, and the door was shut. 11Afterward the other virgins also came, saying, ‘Lord, Lord, open to us.’ 12But he answered, ‘Most certainly I tell you, I don’t know you.’ 13Watch therefore, for you don’t know the day nor the hour in which the Son of Man is coming.

10. Parable of the Talents (25:14-30) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

14“For it is like a man, going into another country, who called his own servants, and entrusted his goods to them. 15To one he gave five talents, to another two, to another one; to each according to his own ability. Then he went on his journey. 16Immediately he who received the five talents went and traded with them, and made another five talents. 17In like manner he also who got the two gained another two. 18But he who received the one went away and dug in the earth, and hid his lord’s money.

19“Now after a long time the lord of those servants came, and reconciled accounts with them. 20He who received the five talents came and brought another five talents, saying, ‘Lord, you delivered to me five talents. Look, I have gained another five talents besides them.’

21“His lord said to him, ‘Well done, good and faithful servant. You have been faithful over a few things, I will set you over many things. Enter into the joy of your lord.’

22“He also who got the two talents came and said, ‘Lord, you delivered to me two talents. Look, I have gained another two talents besides them.’

23“His lord said to him, ‘Well done, good and faithful servant. You have been faithful over a few things, I will set you over many things. Enter into the joy of your lord.’

24“He also who had received the one talent came and said, ‘Lord, I knew you that you are a hard man, reaping where you did not sow, and gathering where you did not scatter. 25I was afraid, and went away and hid your talent in the earth. Look, you have what is yours.’

26“But his lord answered him, ‘You wicked and slothful servant. You knew that I reap where I didn’t sow, and gather where I didn’t scatter. 27You ought therefore to have deposited my money with the bankers, and at my coming I should have received back my own with interest. 28Take away therefore the talent from him, and give it to him who has the ten talents. 29For to everyone who has will be given, and he will have abundance, but from him who doesn’t have, even that which he has will be taken away. 30Throw out the unprofitable servant into the outer darkness, where there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth.’

31“But when the Son of Man comes in his glory, and all the holy angels with him, then he will sit on the throne of his glory. 32Before him all the nations [ethnos? peoples or nations?] will be gathered, and he will separate them one from another, as a shepherd separates the sheep from the goats. 33He will set the sheep on his right hand, but the goats on the left. 34Then the King will tell those on his right hand, ‘Come, blessed of my Father, inherit the Kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world; 35for I was hungry, and you gave me food to eat. I was thirsty, and you gave me drink. I was a stranger, and you took me in. 36I was naked, and you clothed me. I was sick, and you visited me. I was in prison, and you came to me.’

37“Then the righteous will answer Him, ‘Lord, when did we see you hungry, and feed you; or thirsty, and give you a drink? 38When did we see you as a stranger, and take you in; or naked, and clothe you? 39When did we see you sick, or in prison, and come to you?’

40“The King will answer them, ‘Most certainly I tell you, inasmuch as you did it to one of the least of these my brothers [the Jewish people], you did it to me.’ 41Then he will say also to those on the left hand, ‘Depart from me, you cursed, into the eternal fire which is prepared for the devil and his angels; 42for I was hungry, and you didn’t give me food to eat; I was thirsty, and you gave me no drink; 43I was a stranger, and you didn’t take me in; naked, and you didn’t clothe me; sick, and in prison, and you didn’t visit me.’

44“Then they will also answer, saying, ‘Lord, when did we see you hungry, or thirsty, or a stranger, or naked, or sick, or in prison, and didn’t help you?’

45“Then he will answer them, saying, ‘Most certainly I tell you, inasmuch as you didn’t do it to one of the least of these [the Jewish people?, you didn’t do it to me.’ 46These will go away into eternal punishment, but the righteous into eternal life.”


D. Arrest and Murder of the King (chapters 26 and 26) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

1. Conspiracy to Murder the King (26:1-5; Mark 14:1-2; Luke 22:1-2) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

26 1When Yeshua had finished all these things, He said to his talmidim, 2“You know that the Passover is coming in two days, and the Son of Man will be delivered up to be crucified.”

3Then the Cohenim Gadolim, the Sofrim, and the elders of the people were gathered together in the court of the Cohen Gadol, whose name was Caiaphas. 4They took counsel together that they might take Yeshua by deceit, and kill him. 5But they said, “Not during the feast, lest a riot occur among the people.”

2. The King Anointed for his Death (26:6-13; Mark 14:3-9; John 12:1-8) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

6Now when Yeshua was in Bethany, in the house of Shim`on the leper, 7a woman came to Him with an alabaster jar of very expensive ointment, and she poured it on his head as he sat at the table. 8But when his talmidim saw this, they were indignant, saying, “Why this waste? 9For this ointment might have been sold for much, and given to the poor.”

10However, knowing this, Yeshua said to them, “Why do you trouble the woman? Because she has done a good work for me. 11For you always have the poor with you; but you don’t always have me. 12For in pouring this ointment on my body, she did it to prepare me for burial. 13Most certainly I tell you, wherever this Good News is preached in the whole world, what this woman has done will also be spoken of as a memorial of her.”

3. Y'udah’s Treason (26:14-16; Mark 14:10-11; Luke 22:3-6) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

14Then one of the twelve, Y'hudah the Sicarius, went to the Cohenim Gadolim, 15and said, “What are you willing to give me for me to deliver Him to you?” They weighed out for him thirty pieces of silver.[15 the price of a dead slave] 16From that time he sought opportunity to betray him.

4. The King’s Last Pesach (26:17-30) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

a Preparation Day (26:17-19; Mark 14:12-16; Luke 22:7-13) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

17Now on the first day of unleavened bread [Nisan 14???], the talmidim came to Yeshua, saying to him, “Where do you want us to prepare for you to eat the Passover?”

18He said, “Go into the city to a certain person, and tell him, ‘The Rabbi says, “My time is at hand. I will keep the Passover at your house with my talmidim.”’”

19The talmidim did as Yeshua commanded them, and they prepared the Passover.

b. The Seder Meal (26:20-25; Mark 14:17-21; Luke 22:14-20,24-30) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

20Now when evening had come, He was reclining at the table with the twelve talmidim. 21As they were eating, He said, “Truly I tell you that one of you will betray me.”

22They were exceedingly sorrowful, and each began to ask him, “It isn’t me, is it, Lord?”

23He answered, “He who dipped his hand with me in the dish is the one who will betray me. 24The Son of Man goes, even as it is written of Him, but woe to that man through whom the Son of Man is betrayed! It would be better for that man if he had not been born.”

25Y'hudah, who betrayed him, answered, “It isn’t me, is it, Rabbi?”

He said to him, “You said it!”

c. The Seder Memorial Established (26:26-30; Mark 14:22-25; Luke 22:17-20) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

26As they were eating, Yeshua took bread, said the ha-motzi[26] it, and broke it. He gave it to the talmidim, and said, “Take, eat; this is my body.”

27He took the cup, said the ha-gafen[27], and gave it to them, saying, “All of you drink it, 28for this is my blood of the new covenant, which is poured out for many for the remission of sins.[28, the cup of redemption] 29But I tell you that I will not drink of the fruit of the vine until the day I drink it anew with you in my Father’s Kingdom.”

30When they had sung the Hallel[30], they went out to the Mount of Olives.

5. On the Mount of Olives (26:31-56) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

a. Kefa’s Denial Foretold (26:31-35; Mark 14:26-31; Luke 22:31-34; John 13:31-38) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

31Then Yeshua said to them, “All of you will be made to stumble because of me tonight, for it is written, ‘I will strike the shepherd, and the sheep of the flock will be scattered.’[31] 32But after I am raised up, I will go ahead of you into the Galil.”

33But Kefa answered him, “Even if everyone else will stumble because of you, I will never be made to stumble.”

34Yeshua said to him, “Truly I tell you that tonight, before the rooster crows, you will deny me three times.”

35Kefa said to him, “Even if I have to die with you, I will not deny you.” All of the talmidim also said the same thing.

b. Yeshua’s Agony (26:36-38; Mark 14:32-42; Luke 22:39-46; John 18:1) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

36Then Yeshua came with them to a place called Gethsemane[36], and said to his talmidim, “Sit here, while I go there and pray.” 37He took Kefa and the two sons of Zavdai with him, and began to be sorrowful and severely troubled. 38Then he said to them, “My soul is exceedingly sorrowful, even to death. Stay here, and watch with me.”

c. The First Prayer (26:39; Mark 14:35; Luke 22:41-42) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

39He went a little farther, then fell on His face and prayed, “My Father, if it is possible, let this cup pass away from me; nevertheless, not what I desire, but what you desire.”

d. The Sleeping Talmidim (26:40-41; Mark 14:37-40; Luke 22:45-46) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

40He came to the talmidim, and found them sleeping, and said to Kefa, “What, couldn’t you watch with me for one hour? 41Watch and pray, so you don’t fall to temptation. The spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is weak.”

e. The Second Prayer (26:42-43; Mark 14:39; Luke 22:44) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

42Again, a second time He went off and prayed, “My Father, if this cup can’t pass away from me unless I drink it, Your will be done.” 43He came again and found them sleeping, for their eyes were heavy.

f. The Third Prayer (26:44; Mark 14:41) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

44He left them again, and went away to pray a third time, saying the same words. 45Then he came to his talmidim, and said to them, “Sleep on now, and take your rest. Look, the hour is at hand, and the Son of Man is betrayed into the hands of sinners. 46Arise [why did He tell them, to sleep and mmediately tell them to get up?], let’s be going. Look, he who betrays me is at hand.”

g. The King Betrayed and Arrested (26:47-56; Mark 14:43-50; Luke 22:47-53; John 18:3-11) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

47While he was still speaking, Look, Y'hudah, one of the twelve, came with him a large mob from the chief priest and elders of the people, armed with swords and clubs. 48Now the betrayer had give them a signal, saying, “Whoever I kiss, He is the one. Seize him.” 49He went directly up to Yeshua, and said, “Hail, Rabbi!” and kissed Him.

50Yeshua said to him, “Friend, why are you here?” Then they came and laid hands on Yeshua, and took him. 51Behold, one of those who were with Yeshua stretched out his hand, drew his sword, struck the servant of the high priest, and cut off his ear. 52Then Yeshua said to him, “Put your sword back into its sheath, for all who take up the sword will die by the sword. 53Or do you think that I couldn’t ask my Father, and He would even now send me more than twelve legions[53] of angels? 54How then would the Scriptures be fulfilled that say this must happen this way?”

55Then Yeshua said to the mob, “Have you come with swords and clubs to arrest me, as you would have against a robber? I sat every day in the Temple teaching, and you didn’t arrest me. 56But all this has happened, so the the Scriptures of the prophets might be fulfilled.”

Then all the talmidim left Him, and fled.

6. The King on Trial (26:57-27:26) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

a. The Unlawful Trial by the Sanhedrin (26:57-68; Mark 14:53-65) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

57Those who had taken Yeshua led him away to Caiaphas, the High Priest, where the Sofrim and the elders were gathered together. 58But Kefa followed Him at a distance, to the court of the high priest, went in, and sat with the officers, to see what would happen. 59Now the Cohenim Gadolim, the elders, and the whole council sought false testimony against Yeshua, so that they might put him to death; 60and they found none. Even though many false witnesses came forward, they found none. But at last two false witnesses came forward, 61and said, “This man said, ‘I am able to destroy the temple of God, and to build it in three days.’”

62The high priest stood up, and said to him, “Have you no answer? What is this that these testify against you?” 63But Yeshua held his peace. The high priest answered him, “I adjure you by the living God, that you tell us whether you are the Mashiach, the Son of God.”

64Yeshua said to Him, “You have said it. Nevertheless, I tell you, after this you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of Power, and coming on the clouds of the sky.”

65Then the high priest tore his clothing, saying, “He has spoken blasphemy! Why do we need any more witnesses? Look, now you have heard his blasphemy. 66What do you think?”

They answered, “He is worthy of death!” 67Then they spit in his face and beat him with their fists, and some slapped him, 68saying, “Prophesy to us, you Mashiach! Who hit you?”

b. Kefa Denies the King (26:69-75; Mark 14:66-72; Luke 22:55-62; John 18:15-18,25-27) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

69Now Kefa was sitting outside in the court, and a maid came to him, saying, “You were also with Yeshua, from the Galil!”

70But he denied it before them all, saying, “I don’t know what you are talking about.”

71When he had gone out onto the porch, someone else saw him, and said to those who were there, “This man also was with Yeshua of Natzeret.”

72Again he denied it with an oath, “I don’t know the man.”

73After a little while those who stood by came and said to Kefa, “Surely you are also one of them, for your speech makes you known.”

74Then he began to curse and to swear, “I don’t know the man!”

Immediately the rooster crowed. 75Kefa remembered the word which Yeshua had said to him, “Before the rooster crows, you will deny me three times.” He went out and wept bitterly.


c. The King Taken to the Governor (27:1-2; Mark 15:1; Luke 23:1; John 18:28) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

27 1When morning had come, all the Cohenim Gadolim and the elders of the people took counsel against Yeshua to put him to death: 2and they bound him, and led him away, and delivered him up to Pontius Pilate, the governor.

d. The Traitor’s Remorse (27:3-10) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

3Then Y'hudah, who betrayed him, when he saw that Yeshua was condemned, felt remorse, and brought back the thirty pieces of silver to the Cohenim Gadolim and elders, 4saying, “I have sinned in that I betrayed innocent blood.”

But they said, “What is that to us? You see to it.”

5He threw down the pieces of silver in the sanctuary, and departed. He went away and hanged himself. 6The Cohenim Gadolim took the pieces of silver, and said, “It’s not lawful to put them into the treasury, since it is the price of blood.” 7They took counsel, and bought the potter’s field with them, to bury strangers in. 8Therefore that field was called “The Field of Blood” to this day. 9Then that which was spoken through Yirmeyahu [Jeremiah] the prophet was fulfilled, saying,

“They took the thirty pieces of silver, the price of him upon whom a price had been set, whom some of the children of Yisra'el priced, 10and they gave them for the potter’s field, as ADONAI commanded me.”[10]

e. The Governor Confronts the King (27:11-14; Mark 15:2-5; Luke 23:2-3; John 18:29-38) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

11Now Yeshua stood before the governor: and the governor asked him, saying, “Are you the King of the Y’hudim?”

Yeshua said to him, “So you say.”

12When he was accused by the Cohenim Gadolim and elders, he answered nothing. 13Then Pilate said to Him, “Don’t you hear how many things they testify against you?”

14He gave him no answer, not even one word, so that the governor marveled greatly.

7. Bar-Abba Released to the Mob (27:15-26; Mark 15:6-15; Luke 23:13-25) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

15Now at the feast the governor was accustomed to release to the multitude one prisoner, whom they desired. 16They had then a notable prisoner, called Barabbas. 17When therefore they were gathered together, Pilate said to them, “Whom do you want me to release to you? Barabbas, or Yeshua, who is called Mashiach?” 18For he knew that because of envy they had delivered him up.

19While he was sitting on the judgment seat, his wife sent to him, saying, “Have nothing to do with that righteous man, for I have suffered many things this day in a dream because of him.” 20Now the Cohenim Gadolim and the elders persuaded the multitudes to ask for Barabbas, and destroy Yeshua. 21But the governor answered them, “Which of the two do you want me to release to you?”

They said, “Barabbas!”

22Pilate said to them, “What then shall I do to Yeshua, who is called Mashiach?”

They all said to him, “Let him be crucified!”

23But the governor said, “Why? What evil has he done?”

But they cried out exceedingly, saying, “Let him be crucified!”

24So when Pilate saw that nothing was being gained, but rather that a disturbance was starting, he took water, and washed his hands before the multitude, saying, “I am innocent of the blood of this righteous person. You see to it.”

25All the people answered, “May his blood be on us, and on our children!”

26Then he released to them Barabbas, but Yeshua he flogged and delivered to be crucified.

8. The King Scourged (27:27-32; Mark 15:16-23; Luke 23:26-32; John 19:16-17) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

27Then the governor’s soldiers took Yeshua into the Praetorium, and gathered the whole garrison together against him. 28They stripped him, and put a scarlet robe on him. 29They braided a crown of thorns and put it on his head, and a reed in his right hand; and they kneeled down before him, and mocked him, saying, “Hail, King of the Y’hudim!” 30They spat on him, and took the reed and struck him on the head. 31When they had mocked him, they took the robe off of him, and put his clothes on him, and led him away to crucify him.

32As they came out, they found a man of Cyrene, Shim`on by name, and they compelled him to go with them, that he might carry his cross.

9. The King Murdered (27:33-44; Mark 15;22-32; Luke 23:33-43; John 19:17-24) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

33They came to a place called “Golgotha,” that is to say, “The place of a skull.” 34They gave him sour wine to drink mixed with gall. When he had tasted it, he would not drink. 35When they had crucified him, they divided his clothing among them, casting lots,[35] 36and they sat and watched him there. 37They set up over his head the accusation against him written, “THIS IS YESHUA, THE KING OF THE Y’hudim.”

38Then there were two robbers crucified with him, one on his right hand and one on the left. 39Those who passed by blasphemed him, wagging their heads, 40and saying, “You who destroy the temple, and build it in three days, save yourself! If you are the Son of God, come down from the cross!”

41Likewise the Cohenim Gadolim also mocking, with the Sofrim, the P'rushim, and the elders, said, 42“He saved others, but he can’t save himself. If he is the King of Yisra'el, let him come down from the cross now, and we will believe in him. 43He trusts in God. Let God deliver him now, if he wants him; for he said, ‘I am the Son of God.’” 44The robbers also who were crucified with him cast on him the same reproach.

10. The Death of the King (27:45-56; Mark 15:33-41; Luke 23:44-49; John 19:30-37) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

45Now from the sixth hour [45a] there was darkness over all the land until the ninth hour45b. 46About the ninth hour[46] Yeshua cried with a loud voice, saying, “Eli, Eli, lima[46a] sabachthani?” That is, “My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?”[46b]

47Some of them who stood there, when they heard it, said, “This man is calling Eliyah.”

48Immediately one of them ran, and took a sponge, and filled it with vinegar, and put it on a reed, and gave him a drink. 49The rest said, “Let him be. Let’s see whether Eliyah comes to save him.”

50Yeshua cried again with a loud voice, and yielded up his spirit. 51Behold, the veil of the temple was torn in two from the top to the bottom. The earth quaked and the rocks were split. 52The tombs were opened, and many bodies of the holy ones who had fallen asleep were raised; 53and coming out of the tombs after his resurrection, they entered into the holy city and appeared to many. 54Now the centurion, and those who were with him watching Yeshua, when they saw the earthquake, and the things that were done, feared exceedingly, saying, “Truly this was the Son of God.”

55Many women were there watching from afar, who had followed Yeshua from the Galil, serving him. 56Among them were Miryam Magdalene, Miryam the mother of Ya'akov and Yeshua, and the mother of the sons of Zavdai.

11. The Burial of the King (27:57-61; Mark 15:42-47; Luke 23:50-56; John 19:38-42) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

57When evening had come, a rich man from Arimathaea, named Yosef, who himself was also Yeshua’s talmid came. 58This man went to Pilate, and asked for Yeshua’s body. Then Pilate commanded the body to be given up. 59Yosef took the body, and wrapped it in a clean linen cloth, 60and laid it in his own new tomb, which he had cut out in the rock, and he rolled a great stone to the door of the tomb, and departed. 61Miryam Magdalene was there, and the other Miryam, sitting opposite the tomb.

12. The Tomb Sealed and Guarded (27:62-66) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

62Now on the next day, which was the day after the Preparation Day, the Cohenim Gadolim and the P'rushim were gathered together to Pilate, 63saying, “Sir, we remember what that deceiver said while he was still alive: ‘After three days I will rise again.’ 64Command therefore that the tomb be made secure until the third day, lest perhaps his talmidim come at night and steal him away, and tell the people, ‘He is risen from the dead;’ and the last deception will be worse than the first.”

65Pilate said to them, “You have a guard. Go, make it as secure as you can.” 66So they went with the guard and made the tomb secure, sealing the stone.


VII. Resurrection of the King (chapter 28) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

A. The Empty Tomb (28:1-10) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

28 1At the end of Shabbat, as the first day of the week was beginning[1], Miryam Magdalene and the other Miryam came to see the tomb. 2Behold, there was a great earthquake, for an angel of ADONAI descended from the sky, and came and rolled away the stone from the door, and sat on it. 3His appearance was like lightning, and his clothing white as snow. 4For fear of him, the guards shook, and became like dead men. 5The angel answered the women, “Don’t be afraid, for I know that you seek Yeshua, who has been crucified. 6He is not here, for he has risen, just like he said. Come, see the place where the Lord was lying. 7Go quickly and tell his talmidim, ‘He has risen from the dead, and Look, he goes before you into the Galil; there you will see him.’ Look, I have told you.”

8They departed quickly from the tomb with fear and great joy, and ran to bring his talmidim word. 9As they went to tell his talmidim, Look, Yeshua met them, saying, “Rejoice!”

They came and took hold of his feet, and worshiped him.

10Then Yeshua said to them, “Don’t be afraid. Go tell my brothers[10] that they should go into the Galil, and there they will see me.”

B. The Soldiers Bribed (28:11-15) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

11Now while they were going, some of the guards came into the city, and told the Cohenim Gadolim all the things that had happened. 12When they were assembled with the elders, and had taken counsel, they gave a large amount of silver to the soldiers, 13saying, “Say that his talmidim came by night, and stole him away while we slept. 14If this comes to the governor’s ears, we will persuade him and make you free of worry.” 15So they took the money and did as they were told. This saying was spread abroad among the Y'hudim, and continues until this day.

C. The King’s Ambassadors Commissioned (28:16-20) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

16But the eleven talmidim went into the Galil, to the mountain where Yeshua had sent them. 17When they saw him, they bowed down to him, but some doubted. 18Yeshua came to them and spoke to them, saying, “All authority has been given to me in heaven and on earth. 19Therefore go, and make talmidim of all nations, immersing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of Ruach HaKodesh, 20teaching them to observe all things that I commanded you. Look, I am with you always, even to the end of the age.” Amen.

____________

Notes on Chapter One

1-1a. Israel has always expected that there would be two Messiahs. One would be Mashiach ben Yosef, the suffering servant of Isaiah 53 who would suffer and die on behalf of all Israel. The other would be Mashiach ben David, who would inherit David’s throne and rule over Israel. Yeshua satisfies both expectations. Mattityahu (Matthew) traces Yeshua’s ancestry down through the generations from Avraham, Yitz'chak, and Ya'akov to King David to clearly demonstrate that He is surely Mashiach ben David, the true heir to the throne of Israel. The Tanakh required that Mashiach must be a descendant of Avraham (Gen. 22:18), Ya'akov (Num. 24:17), Y'hudah (Gen. 49:10), Yishai (Isa. 11:1), David (2Sam 7:13), and Z'rubavel (Hag. 2:22-23). All of these individuals are specifically named in Yeshua’s genealogy. [RETURN]

1-1b. Both Mashiach (Hebrew xyXm) and Christos (Greek cristoß) mean “anointed” or “Anointed One.” Israel anointed three classes of men: prophets, priests, and kings. Yeshua fills all three roles, and He is therefore The Anointed One. [RETURN]

1-1c In Hebrew genealogies, the word “son” may be used literally to refer to the son, or to a son-in-law or grandson, or it may mean “descendant.” It is also used to indicate “having the characteristics of …” For example Ya'akov and Yochanan, the two sons of Zavdai, were also called “sons of thunder” (Mark 3:17), probably because of their boisterous personalities or explosive tempers, and Bar-Nabba (Barnabas) means Son of Encouragement (Acts 4:36). [RETURN]

1-2a. In Hebrew genealogies the word “father” may be used either literally of the father or grandfather, or it may mean “ancestor” or “progenitor.” [RETURN]

1-2b. Y'hudah (hdwhy) means one who praises. [RETURN]

1-3. Women were almost never included in Hebrew genealogies. Mattityahu includes four women — Gentile women, at that — Tamar, Rachav (Rahab), Rut (Ruth), and the wife of Uriah, (Bat-sheva, Bathsheba), whom God greatly honored by making them to be ancestors of the Messiah, through Whom all Gentiles have the opportunity to become sons of God along with the Jews. [RETURN]

1-6. That is, Bathsheba. [RETURN]

1-16. Notice the change in format [“… became the father of …”]. Mattityahu, under the inspiration of Ruach HaKodesh, carefully notes that Yeshua was the son of Miryam, and not Yosef, indicating the miraculous method of His conception. [RETURN]

1-17. Mattityahu has used a common Hebrew memory tool here. By omitting a few generations he has grouped Yeshua’s ancestors into three groups of fourteen individuals to make the list easier to memorize. This does not invalidate the literal accuracy of his letter, because the Hebrew word for “father” also translates as either “grandfather” or “ancestor.” [RETURN]

1-19. The betrothal, or engagement, in ancient Israel was as binding as marriage, and could only be ended by death or by divorce. This required a Beit Din, or rabbinic judicial court, to issue a writ of divorce called a get. For a get to be issued, Yosef would have had to have taken her to a public court and accused her of adultery, which would have carried the penalty of death by stoning. Perhaps he was friends with the local Beit Din and could arrange to have the get issued without a public trial, saving her life — at least until her pregnancy started to show, at which time she would have very probably have been stoned to death. This was an incredibly difficult decision for a tzaddik to be faced with.

 Mattityahu provides great detail to ensure that it is clearly understood that Miryam was still a virgin at the time of Yeshua’s birth to make it clear that there was no improper behavior at any time on her part. The first- and second-century rabbis concocted a theory to contradict the claims of the Gospels that is still believed by most Jews today. They claimed that Yeshua was the illegitimate son of an act of adultery between Miryam and a Roman soldier named Pantera, thus discrediting the entire Apostolic Writings and totally dishonoring Yeshua, declaring Him a mamzer (bastard).

Roman Catholic mythology claims that Miryam remained a virgin throughout her life, but the Gospels clearly indicate that Yeshua had several half-brothers and half-sisters (Matt. 13:55-56), among whom was Ya'akov (James), who became the chief Messianic Rabbi of Jerusalem after the Resurrection. Y'huda (James), the author of the letter that bears his name, was also the brother of Ya'akov and half-brother of Yeshua. [RETURN]

1-20a. The Hebrew word $alm mal'ak and the Greek word aggeloß aggelos both mean messenger, envoy, or one who is sent. This was most likely Gavri'el (layrbg, Gabriel, “warrior of God” or “man of God”), believed to be an archangel, one of the chief princes of the angelic realm. He is the angel God used to send messages of great importance to man. He was sent to Daniel (Dan 8:16; Dan 9:21)  Zacharias (Luke 1:19), and Mary (Luke 1:26). [RETURN]

1-20b. Long before the first century, out of respect for God, the word Adonai (ynda, Lord) was substituted for the Sacred Name, hwhy (yud-hey-vav-hey) which is rendered in English as YHWH or Yahewh (or, grammatically impossibly, “Jehovah” — his so-called “Witnesses” do not understand that the word “Jehovah“ is impossible in either Hebrew or Aramaic, as neither language has a letter that carries the “jay” sound). In many English translations of the Bible the Tetragrammaton (YHWH, the four Hebrew letters indicating the Sacred Name) is rendered in small capital letters as LORD, and I have followed the same convention with the Hebrew equivalent, ADONAI. There are a few cults that I call “Sacred Namers” who insist that one must refer to the Most High by a particular name using their pronunciation in order to be saved. The Tetragrammaton contains no vowels, so anyone who claims to know the proper pronunciation is deceived. Please see Where Did the Word “Jehovah” Come From? [RETURN]

1-21. “Yeshua” (h[wXy) is the Hebrew word for salvation or deliverance (also welfare, prosperity, deliverance, victory). “Yeshua HaMashiach” (Yeshua the Anointed One) is rendered in nearly all English translations as “Jesus Christ,” as if His first name were “Jesus” and His last name were “Christ.” Neither is true. HaMashiach (the Messiah, xyXm, Anointed One; cristoß Christos in Greek) is His title; Yeshua ben Yosef is His name. Messiah’s name is not, never has been, and never will be “Jesus.” That word is impossible to say in either Hebrew or Aramaic because neither language has a “J” (jay) sound. How could He possibly have a grammatically impossible name? More about that HERE.

David Stern (Jewish New Testament Commentary) calls this verse a “Semitism,” which indicates by the grammatical structure of this sentence that it was most certainly translated into Greek directly from Hebrew, lending support to the theory that the Apostolic Writings were originally written in Hebrew or (possibly, though I think quite unlikely) Aramaic, and then immediately translated into Koine Greek for transmission into the diaspora. If this sentence were originally written in Greek, the sentence “you shall call his name iesouß (Iesus), for He shall save His people from their sins” makes as little sense in Greek as it does in English. What does the name Iesus (or Jesus) have to do with saving people from their sins? The sentence only makes sense in Hebrew and Aramaic.

One of the common criticisms of the “New Testament” is that the grammar and construction of the Greek version is sometimes awkward. This leads textual critics to the mistaken conclusion that the authors were uneducated men. If the original autographs (the hand-written original penned by the author’s own hand) were written in Hebrew and then translated into Greek, especially if Hebrew idioms were translated literally (as many are), that would go a very long way toward explaining away the awkward construction. See Evidences for a Hebrew Source of the Apostolic Scriptures and Scholars Who Support a Hebrew Origin for the Apostolic Scriptures. [RETURN]

1-22. The integrity of the Scriptures is totally dependent upon fulfilled prophecy. The reason that God gave the prophets glimpses into their future was not to satisfy their curiosity about what was going to happen, but so that His word would be vindicated and proved when what He said was going to happen in the future actually did happen. If God cannot see the future, the He is not God. However, if we can trust Him when He says what’s what’s going to happen in the future, then we can trust everything else that He says.

Similarly, besides His bodily resurrection from the dead, the proof of Yeshua’s messiaship is that He, and He alone, is the fulfillment of all 324 messianic prophecies from the Tanakh. The mathematical probabilities of any one man in history fulfilling only 48 of those prophecies is just about the same as the chances of finding only one specific electron out of all of the electrons in all the known mass of the entire known universe. It is therefore scientifically impossible for Yeshua to not be the Messiah. More on this subject HERE. [RETURN]

1-23a. Look: Hebrew hnnh, hinneh, behold! An interjection demanding careful attention; “Hey! Listen up! This is important!” [RETURN]

1-23b. Isaiah 7:14. Skeptics argue against Yeshua’s virgin birth on the grounds that Yesha'yahu’s prophecy uses the Hebrew word hml[ (`almah) which can be translated either as “virgin” or “young woman,” indicating a young woman of marriageable age. The Theological Word Book of the Old Testament includes the entry for this word: “There is no instance where it can be proved that this word designates a young woman who is not a virgin.” Additionally, the sages who translated the Septuagint, the very first Greek translation of the Tanakh composed between the third and second centuries BCE, translated `almah as parqenoß (parthenos), which means very specifically “a woman or man who has never had sexual intercourse.” Dr. Luke, a physician who should certainly know the difference between a young woman and one who is medically a virgin, specifically refers to Miryam as a parthenos. Skeptics should also take note that the penalty for non-chastity was death by stoning, so any “young woman of marriageable age” who was not a virgin would have been summarily executed. The text simply does not permit the possibility that Miryam was not medically a virgin. [RETURN]

Notes on Chapter Two

2-1a. The magi arrived close to two years after Yeshua was born. This we know because Herod ordered that all the male children in Beit-Lechem who were two years old and younger were to be slaughtered. The Christian tradition that they were kings or that they were three in number has absolutely no possible support whatsoever from Scripture. Every “nativity” scene that you have ever seen that depicts three “kings” in a stable worshiping the baby in the manger is totally false! [RETURN]

2-1b. Beith-Lechem (~xl tyb), or Bethlehem, is Hebrew for “House of Bread.” What an appropriate birth place for the Bread of Life. [RETURN]

2-1c. Magi: the plural form of mage; from Greek magoß magos; the name given by the Babylonians (Chaldeans), Medes, Persians, and others, to the wise men, teachers, priests, physicians, astrologers, seers, interpreters of dreams, augers, soothsayers, sorcerers etc. There is an interesting tradition that says the magi were actually Jewish sages who had not returned from Babylon after the 40-year exile. They were astronomers who saw the unusual star and interpreted it as the sign given in Numbers 24:17. [RETURN]

2-1d. The East: probably Babylon (see previous note). [RETURN]

2-2a. King of the Y'hudim: Yeshua’s genealogy clearly demonstrates that He, not Herod, is the legitimate King of Israel. If you are a natural-born, biological descendant of Avraham, Yitzchak, and Ya'akov you are a citizen of the Commonwealth, and He is your king! If you are grafted into Israel through faith in Yeshua, you are a naturalized citizen of the Commonwealth of Israel, and He is your King! If He is your King, He is your sovereign ruler and you are His subject, and subject to (obligated to obey) His commandments — all of them! If He is not King over all, He is not your King at all, and you are not a Citizen of His kingdom. But if we are subject to His kingship, we should do things the way He did them! [RETURN]

2-2b. Most translations say something like “we have seen his star in the East.” They didn’t see the star in their east. That would put the star somewhere over Afghanistan or even Pakistan! They saw the star while they were in the East. Thus my less ambiguous rendering: “We in the east saw His star …” [RETURN]

2-3. To paraphrase the common saying, “When Herod ain’t happy, ain’t nobody happy!” [RETURN]

2-4. Hebrew ~yrpo, Sofarim: Scribes — Levites who were responsible for making copies of the scrolls of the Scriptures. The word comes from the same root word as the Hebrew term for “book.” They were considered to know the scriptures better than anyone else, primarily because they spent their entire lives making copies of the Tanakh. Some versions translate Sofarim as “Scribes,” others as Torah Teachers, as I have done. [RETURN]

2-6. “But you, Beit-Lechem near Efrat, so small among the clans of Y'hudah, out of you will come forth to me the future ruler of Isra'el, whose origins are far in the past, back in ancient times.” (Micah 5:2 CJB). [RETURN]

2-11a. Yeshua’s family was not in the “stable” when the magi arrived, as promoted by Christian mythology. They arrived when He was almost two years old, and had moved into a house. See note 2-1a above. [RETURN]

2-11b. In the ancient Near- and Middle-East, gold was the standard gift to offer a king, frankincense was a standard gift to offer a god, and myrrh was a standard component in burial preparations. Prophetic? Because the magi offered three very expensive gifts, Christian mythology supposes that they were three kings. This assumption is totally non-Biblical! [RETURN]

2-12. Babylon. [RETURN]

2-13. Again, probably Gavri'el [RETURN]

2-15. Hosea 11:1. [RETURN]

2-18a. Tradition places Rachel’s tomb about a mile north of Beit-Lechem, putting it about three miles south of Jerusalem. But comparing 1 Samuel 7:17; 8:4, and 10:2 suggests very strongly that she is actually buried just outside of Ramah, about seven or eight miles north of Jerusalem. Apparently Yirmeyahu is saying that from her grave near Ramah, Rachel is weeping for her infant descendants who were slaughtered eleven miles away in Ramah. [RETURN]

2-18b. Jeremiah 31:15. [RETURN]

2-23a. Nazareth; literally in Hebrew, “Branch town.” [RETURN]

2-23b. Nazarene, from branch. There is a very interesting play on words going on here in the original Hebrew. One of Isaiah’s prophecies concerning the Messiah says, “Then a shoot (rtx, khoter, a branch, twig, rod ) will grow from the stump of Jesse, and a branch (rcn, netser, sprout, shoot, branch — always fig; the fig tree is a Biblical type for Israel) from his roots will bear fruit” (Isaiah 1:1, HCSB). So Mattityahu tells us that Messiah, “the Branch” from the root of Jesse, grew up in “Branchtown.” [RETURN]

Notes on Chapter 3

3-1. Yochanan (John) the Immerser (sorry, he wasn’t a Baptist, or a Methodist, or even an Episcopalian) was the son of cohen (an Aaronic priest) named Z'kharyah and his wife Elisheva, who was also a descendant of Aharon, the first High Priest. [RETURN]

3-2a. The word used here in the Greek version is metanoeo (metanoeo), which generally is assumed to mean to change one's mind, i.e. to repent, or to change one’s mind for better, heartily to amend with abhorrence of one’s past sins. In Classical Greek metanoeo is a military command equal to “about face!” — turn around and go in the opposite direction, not simply to change one’s mind. Mattityahu, however, was a Jew who was writing in a Jewish land a letter to Jews about the Jewish Messiah. He spoke and wrote Hebrew, not Greek. The word he would have actually used is bwX (shuwb), which has a much deeper meaning: to turn back; to return, come or go back; to turn back to God from evil; to be returned, be restored, be brought back. [RETURN]

3-2b. The Kingdom of Heaven referred to by Mattityahu and the Kingdom of God spoken of by Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, and Paul refer to exactly the same thing. One of the greatest tragedies of the last 2000 years is that the Gentile Church has totally departed from the key message of Yochanan, Yeshua, and the Emissaries (Apostles): “Repent, for God’s Kingdom is very near!” This is mostly because they have lost track of the concept that for over 100 years after the resurrection, the Jewish sect called “The Way” was almost exclusively Jewish, and all the Apostolic letters were written in Hebrew, by Torah-observant Jewish rabbis, to an almost exclusively Jewish audience, who met not in churches but in synagogues.

They do not understand that these people very carefully avoided speaking God’s name or even referring to Him directly. They developed what are called “circumlocutions,” using various words and phrases as an alternative to a direct reference to God. Among those circumlocutions include “heaven” and “throne.” So the phrase “Kingdom Of Heaven” has absolutely nothing to do with a place where people vainly hope to spend eternity after they die. “Kingdom Of Heaven” actually refers to the time and place to which all Israel was looking forward, during which God, through His Messiah, will rule and reign physically on earth, and the Torah will be the “law of the land” for the whole earth. By extension, God’s Kingdom is any time and place where He is honored and obeyed as King. If you accept the absolute rule of God over your life, then you are  right now living in His Kingdom.

The simplistic message of the Gentile Church has for 1700 years essentially been: walk down the church aisle; concede to the historical fact that Yeshua is the Son of God, the Messiah; get dunked in a heated bathtub or have some water splashed on your face; now you get to go to heaven when you die. Unfortunately there is absolutely no Scripture to support the idea of “going to heaven” when we die.

When properly understood, the True Gospel — the message of “the Kingdom of God” as taught by Yochanan, Yeshua, and the Emissaries — is to turn away from your sin (which is defined as disobedience to God’s Torah), submit to the Kingship of God and be restored to Him, obey His commandments as given in the Torah, and you will inherit eternal life in the olam habah (the world that is to come). [RETURN]   [RETURN TO 19:24]

3-3. Isaiah 40:3. [RETURN]

3-6. Yochanan was not actually immersing anyone. The “immersion of Yochanan” was nothing at all like Christian baptism, and had absolutely nothing to do with “salvation.” In first-century Israel, as today, ritual immersion (tevilah טְבִילָה) is a full-body self-immersion in free-running (“living”) water (a stream, river, or lake) or in a specially-constructed pool called a mikvah that has free-flowing (“living”) water flowing through it. Tevilah is not performed upon the individual by a rabbi or other member of the clergy; the individual totally immerses him/herself in the water, with or without the presence of a rabbi/observer. During the Temple period, the priests and Levites immersed themselves at their ordination and several times every day, and everyone entering the Temple precincts immersed themselves before entering. Currently, all women immerse themselves after each menstrual period and after giving birth, and tevilah is part of the pre-wedding process and the process of converting to Judaism. If a Gentile wishes to convert to Judaism, he/she renounces their current religion, chooses a Hebrew name, men are circumcised, and both men and women immerse themselves completely in a mikvah. Upon coming up out of the mikvah’s water, the person is considered to have died as a Gentile, has been “born again” as a Jew, and is considered every bit as Jewish as a person who was born of two Jewish parents and has practiced Judaism their entire life. This is the reason why Nachdemon (Nicodemus) was so confused (John 3) when Yeshua told him that he needed to be “born again.” How could he become “born again” as a Jew when he was already a Jew and a very influential member of the Sanhedrin? [RETURN]

3-7. The Pharisees (P'rushim) and Sadducees (Tz'dukim) were the two main sects or “parties” of Judaism in the Second Temple Period. Modern Rabbinic Judaism is directly descended from the Pharisees. In spite of the fact that the written Torah says: “Moses wrote down all the words of the LORD” (Exodus 24:4), they believed (as do most modern Jews) that, in addition to the written Torah, God gave Moses an “Oral Torah” at Sinai which he did not commit to writing, but passed on orally down through the generations. They believed that this “Oral Torah” gave them absolute authority to interpret the written Torah in any way they chose, and to hold all Israel accountable to their interpretation. This produced a profoundly legalistic form of Judaism that Rav Sha'ul (the Apostle Paul) would counter in nearly all of his letters. The Pharisees also firmly believed in the existence of an afterlife, and that God punished the wicked and rewarded the righteous in the world to come. They also believed in a messiah who would herald an era of world peace.

The Sadducees were elitists who enthusiastically accepted Hellenism (Greek traditions and life-style) into their lives. Because of their openness toward Hellenism, they were granted appointments by the Roman overseers to the chief positions of authority in the Temple’s priestly caste, and consequently they controlled the Temple and its rituals. They rejected the idea of an “Oral Torah” and believed in a strict literal interpretation of the Torah. Since an afterlife is not specifically mentioned in the Torah, they rejected the idea; in fact, the rejected virtually everything supernatural (which begs the question of how they could actually accept the idea of a supernatural God). They died out shortly after the destruction of the Temple in 70 CE. See the article at Jewish Virtual Library. [RETURN]

3-8. Even now HaShem is raising up “sons [and daughters] of Avraham” every time a non-Jew enters into a covenant relationship with Israel’s Messiah and through Him becomes a citizen of the Commonwealth of Israel, sharing in all the rights and responsibilities of the covenants, the people, the Torah, and the Land of Israel. [RETURN]

3-11. “He will immerse you in Ruach HaKodesh and fire” has a double meaning. First, it refers to the visible presence of Ruach HaKodesh on Shavu'ot (Acts 2:1-4) and the subsequent giving of Ruach HaKodesh to all Believers. Second, it refers to His righteous judgment when those whose names are not found written in the Book of Life will be cast into the Lake of Fire. (Revelation 20:15) [RETURN]

3-15. See “Yeshua’s Immersion.” [RETURN]

Notes on Chapter 4

4-1a. A wilderness is not necessarily a desert, though it may be. It is any uninhabited and uncultivated land. It is in the wilderness where we can be alone with God and hear Him speak to us. It was in the wilderness that HaShem gave Israel His divine instruction, the Torah. [RETURN]

4-1b. The devil: Greek diaboloß, diabolos, false accuser or slanderer. In Hebrew he is called HaSatan (!tX ah) or tsar (rc), the adversary. [RETURN]

4-2. After a person has fasted for a few days, the sensation of hunger goes away. When hunger returns, the person is coming near to starving to death. Yeshua was very near starvation. [RETURN]

4-3a. The word for tempter in the Greek text is peirazo (peirazo), to test for the purpose of ascertaining his quality, or what he thinks, or how he will behave himself. [RETURN]

4-3b. “If, you are the Son of God” in most versions suggests that HaSatan was questioning whether Yeshua is the Son of God. There is, in fact, no doubt that He is. The Greek word translated if (ei) can also be translated as though, although, or since, which I feel is the best rendering. HaSatan was not questioning Yeshua’s deity, since it was He who threw HaSatan (Lucifer) out of heaven in the first place (Luke 10:18). HaSatan was taunting Yeshua, not questioning Him. I have thus rendered the word as since throughout this section.  [RETURN]

4-4. Deuteronomy 8:3. [RETURN]

4-6. Psalm 91:11-12 [RETURN]

4-7. Deuteronomy 6:16 [RETURN]

4-9. Dominion over the entire earth was originally given by HaShem to Adam (Genesis 1:26-28). When Adam accepted the authority of HaSatan over the authority of HaShem, he relinquished his own authority over the world and gave it over to HaSatan. HaSatan, the god of this world (2 Corinthians 4:4), actually now holds legal title to all the kingdoms of this world until the time when Yeshua returns to take it back from him. [RETURN]

4-10a. Satan (!tX, the accuser or adversary). is his title, not his name. Neither is Lucifer his name. Lucifer is simply the rendering in the King James version of the Hebrew word llyh (heylel), shining one or morning star. The Scriptures do not tell us what his name is. [RETURN]

4-10b. Deuteronomy 6:13. [RETURN]

4-12. Luke 3:19-20 [RETURN]

4-13a. Kfar-Nachum (כְּפַר נַחוּם, Nachum’s village); Nachum (~wxn, comfort or mercy — therefore: village of mercy) — (also known as Also known as Tell Hum, Khirbet Karazeh, Bethsaida, Capharnaum, Chorazin, Kefar Nahum, Kafarnaum, Kefar Tanhum, Talhum, and Tanhum) was a fishing village in the time of the Hasmoneans, located on the northern shore of Lake Kinneret (the Sea of Galilee). It had a population of about 1,500. Archaeological excavations have revealed two ancient synagogues built one over the other. One excavation there is believed to be the home of Shim'on Kefa (Simon Peter), where Yeshua made his headquarters for a large portion of His ministry. See articles at BiblePlaces.com and Wikipedia for some rather nice photographs. [RETURN]

4-13b. Lake Kinneret: the Sea of Galilee, also called Kinneret (“harp-shaped”), Lake Gennesaret, Nof Ginosar, or Lake Tiberias, is the largest freshwater lake in Israel, and it is approximately 33 miles in circumference, about 13 miles long, 8 miles wide, and only about 200 feet deep at the deepest point. (By comparison, Lake Tahoe, on the border between California and Nevada, is about 22 miles long, 12 miles wide, and 1.645 feet deep.) It lies 680 feet below sea level and is surrounded by hills, especially on the east side, which reach a height of 2000 feet. See the article at ChristianAnswers.net.

4-13c. Z'vulun and Naftali. Z'vulun (Zebulun) was was the tenth son of Ya'akov (Jacob, Yisra'el), and Naftali (Naphtali) was was his sixth son. [RETURN]

4-15. Galilee of the Nations (Gentiles, non-Jewish people). Galilee was divided into upper and lower Galilee. Upper Galilee was called Galilee of the Gentiles, because it was on the “frontier” of Israel and occupied chiefly by Gentiles. It was in the neighborhood of Tyre, Sidon, etc. [RETURN]

4-16. Isaiah 9:1-2.

4-17. Yeshua never taught anything about “getting saved” or “going to heaven.” Not one single time in all the Gospel accounts is it ever recorded that Yeshua sat and began to teach, “Believe in Me and be baptized for the remission of your sins and you will be saved and go to heaven when you die.” His singular message, and that of His Emissaries, consisted of only nine words: “Repent, for the Kingdom of God is at hand.” The rest of the entire Apostolic Writings (the so-called “New Testament”) is instruction on how to conduct our lives in the Messianic Community after we have repented, turned to God, and become citizens of His Kingdom. [RETURN]

4-21. Greek iakoboß, Iakobos; Hebrew bq[y, Ya'aqob or Ya'akov. The only possible correct English rendering of this name is Jacob. “James” is simply grammatically impossible. [RETURN]

4-23. The very fact that Yeshua was permitted to teach in their synagogues proves beyond any shadow of doubt that He was a well-respected Jewish rabbi. He would not have been permitted to teach had He not been. [RETURN]

Regions of First-Century Israel Click to Enlarge
4-25. The Galil (Galilee) is the area north and west of Lake Kinneret (the Sea of Galilee). Decapolis (ten cities) was a federation of ten city-states that lay in the area east of the Jordan River and south of `Ever-HaYarden. Yerushalayim is Jerusalem, west and slightly north of the northern tip of the Dead Sea. Y'hudah (Judea) was the territory west of the Dead Sea and the southern Jordan River between Samaria and Idumea. `Ever-HaYarden (Beyond Jordan, or Transjordan) was the area east of the Jordan River and north of Decapoolis. [RETURN]

Notes on Chapter 5

5-1a. This is the only sermon that Yeshua ever preached of which we have any record! And He did not preach it to the lost. He preached it only to His disciples (at one time there were thousands, not just twelve). Besides this one sermon, He gave four other significant discourses, but always to His disciples. Parables are not sermons; they are very brief illustrations of the point that He is making.

Anyone who has visited this site  in Israel knows that this teaching was given on a beautiful hillside overlooking Nof Ginosar (the Sea of Galilee). The shape of the hillside and the breeze that gently blows inland from off the lake make this a perfect natural amphitheater. However, Mattityahu is comparing Yeshua to Moshe here. As Moshe went up the mountain to receive Torah, so Yeshua went up the mountain to teach Torah! See verses 17-20 where He clearly says that He is absolutely not voiding or changing the Torah.

Many teach that in this message Yeshua was refuting the Torah and replacing it with a new set of rules; God forbid! Nothing could be farther from the truth. Yeshua was the One who wrote the Torah in stone with His finger at Sinai. God never changes, so how can His Torah change? See verses 17-21. [RETURN]

5-1b. A talmid is a disciple. A true talmid does not want to know what his rabbi knows, he wants to become what his rabbi is! Remember that Yeshua was a a legitimate Rabbi and He had many disciples in addition to the twelve that we usually think about. He had thousands who followed Him around to listen to Him teach; He had hundreds who were “regulars.” Out of all of these, He selected eleven to be trained and commissioned as Ambassadors of His Kingdom and one to betray Him.  [RETURN]

5-3a. Blessed: Yeshua used the Hebrew word rXa ('ashar), to go straight, walk, go on, advance, make progress, to be advanced, be led on, to be made happy, be blessed. Kenneth Wuest’s Expanded Translation of the New Testament says “spiritually prosperous.” I believe this is a far better rendering than the traditional “blessed” because most people understand it to simply mean “happy,” which is not the primary meaning of this word [RETURN]   [RETURN TO 13:16]

5-3b. Isaiah 57:15; 66:2 [RETURN]

5-4. Isaiah 61:2;66:10,13 [RETURN]

5-5. Psalm 37:11. This will be literally fulfilled when Yeshua returns to rule in Jerusalem. [RETURN]

5-11. Note the change from third person (they) to second person (you). Now He’s speaking directly to the twelve, not to the crowd. Notice also that he says when, not if, they would be mistreated. [RETURN]

5-12. This doesn't mean “going to heaven” — it means that your great reward is stored up (recorded) in heaven. [RETURN]

5-16. Literally, honorable actions. In context of the rest of Yeshua’s message, this would indicate walking in obedience to the commandments (mitzvot) of Torah. “For we are of God’s making, created in union with the Messiah Yeshua for a life of good actions already prepared by God for us to do” (Eph. 2:10) [RETURN]

5-17. How is it possible that the Church has completely removed Torah from the life of its people? Yeshua made it absolutely clear that Torah has not be abolished or altered in any way whatsoever, nor has a single one of the commandments of Torah been set aside for those who would call themselves “Christian.” Yeshua was a Jewish Rabbi and He taught using many of the same tools that the other Rabbis of his time used. This statement is a common teaching tool of the time. When trying to teach a correct interpretation of Torah, the Rabbi would start by asking his talmid (student) to interpret a particular passage. If the student incorrectly interpreted the passage, the Rabbi would say, “Oy vey! You have just destroyed Torah!” But if the student interpreted the passage correctly, the Rabbi would say, “Very good! You have just fulfilled Torah!” Yeshua was saying that He had come to correctly and fully teach and interpret Torah and the Prophets to His talmidim. [RETURN]

5-18a. Greek amen and Hebrew !ma amen, truly, verily.

a. At the beginning of a discourse it means surely, truly, of a truth.

b. At the end of the discourse it means so it is, so be it, may it be fulfilled. It was a custom, which passed over from the synagogues to the Christian assemblies, that when he who had read or discoursed, had offered up solemn prayer to God, the others responded Amen, and thus made the substance of what was uttered their own.

The word “amen” is a most remarkable word. It was transliterated directly from the Hebrew into the Greek of the New Testament, then into Latin and into English and many other languages, so that it is practically a universal word. It has been called the best known word in human speech. The word is directly related — in fact, almost identical — to the Hebrew word for “believe” (!ma aman), or faithful. Thus, it came to mean "sure" or "truly", an expression of absolute trust and confidence. [Thayer and Smith. “Greek Lexicon entry for Amen“. The NAS New Testament Greek Lexicon, 1999.] [RETURN]

Jot and Tittle5-18b. The Hebrew yud is the smallest letter of the Hebrew alphabet, and closely resembles an apostrophe. [RETURN]

5-18c. Pen stroke: rendered tittle in some older translations; a tiny decorative mark on Hebrew letters; may also be used to refer to the vowel points. Not even the smallest vowel or tiniest decorative mark on the letters of Torah are to be changed until all prophecy has been completely fulfilled; changing a tittle may change a letter from beth to kaph, changing the word. The last prophecy of Scripture that is to be fulfilled is the destruction of earth and its recreation as the olam haba (the world to come). Clearly, nothing in the Torah is to change until this world has burned up and been replaced! [RETURN]

5-19a. Moshe ben Maimon (a.k.a. Miamonides or the Rambam, an acronym for “Rabbeinu Moshe Ben Maimon,” “Our Rabbi/Teacher Moses Son of Maimon”) was a rabbi, physician, astronomer, and philosopher who lived in Spain and Egypt from about 1135 to 1204. He is regarded as one of the most influential sages in history. His fourteen-volume Mishneh Torah is among the earliest codification of Judaism and Talmudic law. Among his body of work he compiled from the Torah a definitive list of 613 commandments (mitzvot). It is important to understand that not every mitzvah (commandment) applies to every person. About half apply only to the Levitical Priesthood in a functioning Temple. Another large portion apply only within the Land of Israel when living under a theocratic kingdom. Some apply only to men; others only to women. Some apply only to masters (employers); others only to servants (employees). Some apply only to merchants; others only to farmers. Each of us is responsible for only those mitzvot which apply to us. [RETURN]

5-19b. The Kingdom of Heaven has two aspects, neither of which have anything whatsoever to do with “going to heaven” when we die. In the here and now the Kingdom of Heaven (also called the Kingdom of God; both terms mean exactly the same thing; see note 3-2b) refers to everyone who acknowledges the God of Avraham, Yitzchak, and Ya'akov (Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob) as their Sovereign King and submits their lives to His reign and rule. In the future it refers to the reign of King Messiah on earth during the thousand year Millennial Kingdom, and then after that throughout the eternal olam haba (the world to come). Those who practice and teach obedience to the mitzvot of Torah are called great in that Kingdom; those who break the mitzvot of Torah and teach others to do so, or those who teach that Torah has been abolished, “nailed to Yeshua’s cross,” or otherwise not for us today are called least in this Kingdom. Are you “great” or “least” in His Kingdom? Are you following a “great” pastor or a “least” pastor? [RETURN]

5-20. Again, this has absolutely nothing to do with “going to heaven” when we die. It means living subject to God's rule both in the present and in the olam haba, the world to come. The Scribes (Torah teachers) and Pharisees were in fact righteous, fastidious in their obedience to Torah; yet for the most part their obedience (righteousness) was only outward. God demands not only our obedience, but our cheerful obedience from the heart. Without that cheerful obedience to Torah, we cannot be a part of God’s Kingdom either now or in the future. [RETURN]

5-21. Exodus 20:13 [RETURN]

5-22a. “You good-for-nothing” (qyr, rake) is an Aramaic term of reproach that means empty, idle, ethically worthless, or a senseless, empty-headed man. [RETURN]

5-22b. Gei-Hinnom refers to Hell, the place of the future punishment of the wicked, also called “Gehenna” or “"Gehenna of fire.” This was the valley of Hinnom, south of Jerusalem, the city trash dump where the filth and dead animals of the city were cast out and burned; a fit symbol of the wicked and their future destiny. [RETURN]

5-23. This is talking of a gift or freewill offering, not a sin or guilt offering. [RETURN]

5-24. In effect, Yeshua was saying that if you are in some conflict with a brother, don’t bother to bring Him your gift. He’s not interested in receiving anything from you until you have reconciled with your brother. [RETURN]

5-26. Penny: literally, kodrantes. A kodrantes was a small copper coin worth about 2 lepta (widow’s mites), about 3/8 of a current penny — not enough to buy very much of anything then, and certainly not now. [RETURN]

5-27. Exodus 20:14. [RETURN]

5-28. This word is in the imperfect tense, which indicates a present ongoing action, not a brief one-time event. For example, if you're driving down the street and a beautiful woman catches your eye, leading to an impure thought, repent and move on; you're ok. But if you drive around the block for another look, you've got a problem. [RETURN]

5-31. Deuteronomy 24:1. A get is a certificate of divorce issued by a Beit Din (a Rabbinical court). Traditionally, a man could obtain a get and divorce his wife for any reason whatsoever; just hand her the paper and put her out on the street. She may have burned his breakfast toast, or he may simply be tired of her. [RETURN]

5-32. The only reason that God accepts for divorce is sexual immorality. Anyone who divorces for any other reason is still married in the eyes of God. Any and all sexual activity afterwards is adultery. [RETURN]

5-33. Leviticus 19:12; Numbers 30:2; Deuteronomy 23:21; Ecclesiastes 5:4 [RETURN]

5-38. Exodus 21:24; Leviticus 24:20; Deuteronomy 19:21 [RETURN]

5-39. This is a Hebrew idiom and not to be taken literally. It means that if someone insults you, brush it off and let them insult you again and again and again. It doesn’t really affect you in any way! [RETURN]

5-43a. Leviticus 19:18 [RETURN]

5-43b. Not in the Tanakh, but a part of first-century tradition; see Qumran Manual of Discipline IX, 21-26 [RETURN]

5-47. Goyim, Hebrew ~ywg, singluar ywg goy: nation; frequently used of the nation of Israel, but four times as often to refer to the non-Jewish nations, or Gentiles. Greek eqnoß ethnos, from which comes ethnic, ethnicity; literally refers to groups or tribes of people, as modern national political divisions; most frequently used to refer to non-Jewish people. Since before Messiah came only Israel served the one true God, by default all non-Jewish people were pagans, serving false gods. Goyim therefore frequently is used as synonymous with pagans. [RETURN]

5-48. Perfect does not mean without sin. The Scriptures say repeatedly that is impossible. The Greek and Hebrew words mean the same thing. Greek: teleioß (teleios), complete, mature, wanting nothing necessary to completeness; Hebrew: ~ymt, (tamiym) complete, whole, entire, sound, healthful, wholesome, unimpaired, innocent, having integrity, that which is entirely in accord with truth and fact. [RETURN]

Notes on Chapter 6

6-1. Tzedakah: charitable giving. [RETURN]

6-2a. Or trumpet. “Blow a shofar” is a single word in the Greek version: salpizo (salpizo), to sound a shofar or trumpet. [RETURN]

6-2b. Amen. See note 5-18a. [RETURN]

6-6. The tallit (prayer shawl) helps fulfill this purpose, especially the large tallit, or tallit gadol. By wrapping one’s self in the tallit, including the head, a great measure of privacy can be obtained for prayer. [RETURN]

6-7. Since Yeshua regularly attended synagogue and participated in liturgical prayer (which, by the way, consists almost totally of Scripture quotations), this is obviously not a teaching against liturgical prayer. He is specifically referring to pagan worship practice.

And with apology to many of my Pentecostal friends, most of the “praying (or speaking) in tongues” that I personally observed in the 14 years I attended Pentecostal assemblies was nothing but pagan gibberish: “Untie my bow tie in my Hyundai and shuttle my Honda.” Please be careful to follow the Biblical pattern in the use of “the spiritual gift of languages.” That is: (1) the language is always one of the languages of mankind and must be previously unknown to the speaker; (2) there must be an interpreter present who is already familiar with the human language that is being spoken; (3) if there is no interpreter present, the speaker is speaking out of turn and must remain silent. [RETURN]

6-12. Why should we expect God to forgive us when we wrong Him, if we are unwilling to forgive people who wrong us? [RETURN]

6-13. Amen. See note 5-18a. [RETURN]

6-20. Obviously, it’s not literally possible to make deposits into a bank somewhere in heaven. Yeshua is talking about heaven’s accounting system. This is not how you send wealth ahead of you so you can have it to use when you get there. He’s talking about spiritual, not material, treasures. When you store up spiritual treasures in the heavenly accounting system, you will find that they are available for you to use here on earth. [RETURN]

6-23. “The eye is the lamp of the body” was an ancient proverb (not from the proverbs of Solomon). Having a “good eye” is an idiom for being generous; having an “evil eye” is an idiom for being stingy. [RETURN]

6-27. Literally, a cubit, approximately 18 inches. [RETURN]

6-30. Throughout His ministry we see Yeshua often calling people “you of little faith.” Many interpreters assume this is a rebuke to people who exhibit a low level of faith. I prefer to think of it as a term of endearment spoken as one would speak to a little child who is really struggling to understand a complex problem. I therefore render it as “Little Faith.” [RETURN]   [RETURN TO 14:31]

Notes on Chapter 7

7-8. “Asking,” “seeking,” and “knocking” are in the grammatical tense that indicates a continuously  ongoing action, not a one-time event. [RETURN]

7-12. Again note that He specifically says that His teaching is the core of the Torah. Yeshua could not possibly have made it any more clear that He was teaching Torah, not doing away with Torah! See 5:17-20. [RETURN]

7-15a. A false prophet (Deut. 13:1-5, Deut. 18:20-23) is any self-proclaimed Bible teacher who offers any prediction of the future in the name of God and that prediction does not come true, or who speaks any word in the name of God that God did not direct him to speak, or who encourages people to follow after false gods, such as the “god” of health, wealth, and prosperity. God says that we are not to “be afraid” of them (Deut. 18:22). The Hebrew word for “be afraid” is rwg (guwr), which means to stand in awe. But it also means to sojourn or abide with or assemble with. Not only are we not to be in awe of (respect) what they say, we are to get away from them! God also says they must die, but I strongly recommend you leave that part to Him! [RETURN]

7-15b. Yeshua calls His followers His sheep, so a wolf in sheep’s clothing is a violent predator who looks like a Believer. Anyone who claims to be a Believer but who teaches a Gentile Jesus (another Yeshua) or a different gospel (1Cor. 11:4, Gal. 1:6-7) or the doctrine of demons (1Tim. 4:1) is a wolf in sheep’s clothing! [RETURN]

7-21. Walking the aisle, making “the confession,” and getting baptized will absolutely not get you into the Kingdom without true repentance. Repentance means turning away from sin and turning to God. Turning to God includes obeying His divine instruction (Torah). If Yeshua is not your Lord of all, he is not your Lord at all! The Torah is the Constitution of the Kingdom. If you are a citizen of the kingdom you are subject to its Constitution! But it is critically important to understand that you cannot become a citizen by following the Constitution; you follow the Constitution after you become a citizen! [RETURN]

7-22. The Day of ADONAI, colloquially “Judgment Day,” when Messiah comes to judge the world (Joel 2:28-32; Acts 2:20; 1Cor. 5:5; 1Thess. 5:2; 2Thess. 2:2; 2Pet. 3:-10). [RETURN]

7-23. “… you who despise Torah.” (Quoting Psalm 6:8.) The CJB translates this phrase as “you workers of lawlessness” and the HCSB says “you lawbreakers!” The literal translation from the Greek is “you who work lawlessness.” The Greek word translated “lawlessness” is anomia (anomia), which means “without law.” Since “law” is one of the translations of “Torah,” then “lawlessness” means “without Torah.” Hence my rendering of this phrase. [RETURN]

7-29. The Torah Teachers, or Scribes (Sofrim), taught very much like the sages teach in the Talmud: “Rabbi Yochanan said in the name of Rabbi Shlomo, who said in the name of Rabbi Gamliel ...” But Yeshua taught on His own authority: “I know that you have been taught …, but I'm telling you that …”  [RETURN]

Notes on Chapter Eight

8-2. Tzara'at (t[rc) is a malignant skin disease, or a mold/mildew infestation of the home or clothing. It is distinct from leprosy, or Hansen's disease. [RETURN]

8-3. Try to imagine how absolutely precious this touch from Yeshua was for this man. It was forbidden to touch person with Tzara`at. This may have been his first human contact in years! [RETURN]

8-4. See Leviticus 14:1-32 [RETURN]

8-5. A centurion was a Roman officer who commanded a “century” of 100 soldiers. This was almost certainly Cornelius who, with his entire household, became the first non-Jewish followers of Yeshua. See Acts 10. [RETURN]

8-8. Most translations say, “I’m not worthy.” The Greek word ikanoß (hikanos) is only translated “worthy” twice out of the 41 times it appears in the Apostolic Writings. We know from Acts 10 that Cornelius was a ger (rg), a God-fearer, who regularly participated in the activities of the Capernaum synagogue and knew that tradition did not permit a Jew, especially a rabbi, to enter the home of a Gentile. [RETURN]

8-11a. Gentiles who show the same kind of faith as Cornelius. [RETURN]

8-11b. This is not when we “get to heaven,” but in the Messiah’s Kingdom here on earth when He reigns from Jerusalem. Avraham, Yitz'chak, and Ya'akov will be resurrected and hold key positions of leadership in Messiah’s government, and we will serve in that government with them. [RETURN]

8-12. Many Jews who were born into Israel, but who do not exercise the kind of faith that Cornelius had, will be “broken off” from the olive tree to make room for the Gentiles to be grafted in. (Rom. 11:17-23) [RETURN]

8-17. Isaiah 53:4 [RETURN]

8-21a. Another of His talmidim: Yeshua had hundreds, sometimes thousands, of talmidim, not just the twelve. We are not told how many were here with Him in Capernaum, just that it was a large crowd. [RETURN]

8-21b. We don’t know if this talmid’s father was old or sick at the time. It may possibly be that he was saying, I'll be happy to follow you, but I don’t want to leave my family right now, because I don’t want to risk losing my inheritance. After my father dies and I’ve received my inheritance, I’ll come join your team. [RETURN]

8-22. “… leave the dead to bury their own dead …” There are plenty of people who are spiritually dead and are more concerned about chasing their inheritance than they are about the Kingdom of God. They can bury the dead. [RETURN]

8-24. One of the characteristics of Nof Giosar (a.k.a Sea of Galilee, Kinneret, Lake of Gennesaret, or Lake Tiberias) is the violent storms that can blow up at any time with virtually no warning at all. [RETURN]

8-26. O you of little faith: This is not a rebuke; it’s a term of endearment: “What's the matter, Little-Faith?” [RETURN]

8-28a. Gadarenes, also called Gergesenes, was the capital of Peraea, situated opposite the south extremity of the Lake of Gennesaret to the south-east, but at some distance from the lake on the banks of the river Hieromax. [RETURN]

8-28b. Mark and Luke only mention one person. This is not a “discrepancy,” it’s merely three different tellings of the same event. Whether there were one or two men is totally irrelevant. [RETURN]

8-29. The demons know that they have lost the war and that their eternal destiny is to be in torment. This legion of demons also knew that this wasn’t the time or the place. It is unclear whether they were afraid or taunting Him. We can be sure that there was a huge host of demons because they possessed a whole herd of pigs. [RETURN]

Notes on Chapter Nine

9-8. A b'rakhah is a prayer of praise to God that begins with the words “Barchu etah, ADONAI Eloheinu, Melech ha olam … Blessed are You, ADONAI our god, King of the Universe, Who …” and then goes on to way what wonderful thing God has done in this occasion. For example, the b'rakhah for bread is, “Barchu etah, ADONAI Eloheinu, Melech ha-olam, ha matzi mein ha-aretz. Blessed are You, ADONAI our god, King of the Universe, Who brings forth our bread [food] from the earth [ground].” [RETURN]

9-9. Tax collectors were among the most despised people in all of Israel. They were considered traitors and thieves, working as agents of the oppressive Roman government against the people, and extorting huge taxes and fees from them. To become a tax collector, a man “purchased” his territory from the Roman government, and like a multi-level marketing program, he recruited other tax collectors to help him work his territory. There were no fixed tax rates. Rome simply told the collector the total amount they expected to receive. The tax collector could then force people to pay any amount that he wanted to; he would pay Rome the amount they required and keep the rest for himself, and he took a healthy “commission” from the proceeds of everyone working under him. Obviously, although they were incredibly rich, they were outcasts from society. Along comes Yeshua, a well-known and well-respected rabbi, inviting Mattityahu to become His talmid (disciple)! For a man who was not even allowed to worship in the synagogue, let alone the Temple, this was truly a very remarkable once-in-a-lifetime opportunity. How could he possibly refuse such an offer? [RETURN]

9-10a. Although Mattityahu doesn’t tell us this dinner was at his home, Luke tells us, “Levi gave a banquet at his house in Yeshua's honor, and there was a large group of tax-collectors and others at the table with them” (Luke 5:29). This must have been very shortly after Mattityahu had become a talmid. Apparently he decided to have all of his old and new friends over for dinner. As Mattityahu was very wealthy, I would think that he had a very nice, large home with a covered open-air patio where he hosted his social functions. [RETURN]

9-10b. Tax collectors and sinners. Undoubtedly many, if not all, of the tax collectors there were members of Mattityahu’s team. In first-century Israel, a “sinner” wasn’t necessarily someone who violated Torah; it included anyone who didn’t conform to the Pharisees’ ultra-rigid interpretation of the Torah. [RETURN]

9-11. The Pharisees would certainly not have come inside with all the tax collectors and “sinners” there to “contaminate” them. Passing by in the street, they must have seen this and leaned over the low courtyard wall to mutter at the disciples who were nearest the wall. [RETURN]

9-12. I think it’s very unlikely that this had anything to do with Yeshua’s acute sense of hearing. It is most likely that the Pharisees intended this as a public rebuke of Yeshua, and their intent was for everyone within earshot to hear the rebuke. [RETURN]

9-13a. Hosea 6:6. Yeshua quoted only the first half of this sentence: “For I desire loyalty and not sacrifice, the knowledge of God rather than burnt offerings” (HCSB). The word loyalty is חֶסֶד (kheced), goodness, kindness, faithfulness. The word knowledge is t[d (da`ath) discernment, understanding, wisdom. He called attention to the first half with the intent that they would remember the second half. [RETURN]

9-13b. Yeshua was not being sarcastic. Those who live in obedience to Torah, like the Pharisees clearly did, have no need to repent. They are already righteous. Teshuva means to turn away from sin and return to God; it is not about "getting saved." [RETURN]

9-20. Numbers 15:38-40 [RETURN]

9-21. She knew and believed Malachi’s prophecy that said when Messiah comes He will have the power of healing in the hem of his robe. “But for you who fear My name, the Sun of Righteousness will rise with healing in His wings, and you will go out and playfully jump like calves from the stall” (Malachi 4:2) The word “wings” is @nk (kanaph), and means extremity, edge, border, corner, skirt, or corner of a garment. [RETURN]   [RETURN TO 14:36]

9-23. In the ancient Middle East, when a family member died wealthy people would hire professional mourners who would weep, wail, and play mournful music for an entire week. [RETURN]

9-27. Because the prophets made two apparently contradictory claims about Messiah — that He would suffer and die for His people, and that He would reign on David’s throne — it was a common misconception that there would actually be two Messiahs. The first, Messiah ben-Yosef (son of Joseph) would die for the people. Then later, Messiah ben-David (son of David) would come, resurrect Messiah ben-Yosef, and then reign over Israel. [RETURN]

9-28a. Apparently they were back at Kefa’s (Peter’s) house. [RETURN]

9-28b. Some translations say, “Do you believe I am able …” The word “able” in the Greek text is dunamai (dunamai), to be able, have power whether by virtue of one's own ability and resources, or of a state of mind, or through favorable circumstances. It is the word from which we derive "dynamite.” [RETURN]

9-35. It is important to understand that Yochanan, Yeshua, and the Emissaries proclaimed (preached) the Good News (Gospel) of the Kingdom. The Gospel of Salvation teaches you how to get saved. The Gospel of the Kingdom teaches you how to live once you have been saved. This is the true Gospel that is not taught in most churches. [RETURN]

9-36. Everywhere He went, Yeshua was constantly teaching. The people didn’t need a shepherd to bandage their boo-boos and comfort them. They needed a shepherd to teach them the Word of God! [RETURN]

Notes on Chapter Ten

10-1. Yeshua had hundreds, if not thousands, of talmidim. These twelve were selected out of all of the others to be his core group. Why twelve? Perhaps for the same reason there were twelve tribes of Israel? The 22 letters of the Hebrew alphabet are also used for numerals, so each letter has a numeric value. Because every letter has a numerical value, each word, sentence, and phrase has a corresponding numerical value. Gematria (Biblical numerology) is the study of those numerical values. In Gematria, Scripture passages with the same numerical value will have a similar message. The first twelve are of particular interest:

One represents unity.
Two represents both unity and division.
Three represents divine completeness and resurrection.
Four represents creation, the world.
Five represents grace, or God’s goodness.
Six is the number of man, and represents weakness and sin.
Seven is the number of completeness and spiritual perfection.
Eight represents new beginnings.
Nine is the number of divine blessing, completeness, and judgment.
Ten is the number of law.
Eleven represents judgment or disorder.
Twelve is the number of governmental perfection. [RETURN]

10-2a. Emissaries: שלוחים (Shaliachim, singular שלוח Shaliach). An emissary or ambassador is one sent forth with the full power and authority of the sender. Today’s ambassadors from Israel to other countries or to the United Nations are sometimes referred to as Shliachim in Hebrew. The Greek equivalent is Apostolos (apostoloß), which transliterates into English as Apostle.

There is an interesting article on the twelve disciples HERE. In the article the author discusses the question of who replaced Judas and says “Matthias was selected to replace Judas as recorded in Acts 1:15-26.” While that may have been the intent of the eleven, God overruled their choice. Matthias is never again heard from in Scripture. God’s clear choice of replacement was Rav Sha'ul. [RETURN]

10-2b. Shim`on (Simon) (!w[mX, Shim`own, heard) — Kefa (@k, keph, rock) — Cephas (kefaß, kephas, rock, a Greek transliteration of Kefa) — Peter (petroß, petros, a rock or stone) [RETURN]

10-2c. Andrai (Andrew) (andreaß, Andreas, manly), a native of Bethsaida in Galilee, brother of Simon Peter, a disciple of John the Baptist, and afterwards an apostle of Christ. He is said to have been crucified at Patrae in Archaia. [RETURN]

10-2d. Ya`akov (Jacob the elder) (Hebrew bq[y, Ya`aqob, “heel holder” or “supplanter” — named for the son of Isaac, grandson of Abraham, and father of the 12 patriarchs of the tribes of Israel), (Greek iakoboß, Iakobos, arbitrarily rendered — absolutely not translated — as “James”), the brother of Yochanan, he is commonly called James the greater or elder; was slain by Herod.

Ben-Zavdai, son of Zavdai (Zebedee), (Hebrew ydbz, Zabdiy, endowment or gift), (Greek zebedaioß, Zebedaios)

In January 1604, James I of England commissioned the third English translation of the Bible, which bears his name, and is often referred to as the “Authorized” Version because it was authorized for used within the Church of England. He gave the translators specific instructions to ensure that the new version would conform to the ecclesiology and reflect the episcopal structure of the Church of England, at the expense of an accurate translation of the text. There is absolutely no linguistic reason, other than to satisfy the vanity of the king, to translate Ya`akov as “Jacob” in the Old Testament and as “James” in the New Testament. [RETURN]

10-2e. Yochanan (John) Ben-Zavdai (Zebedee) (Hebrew !nxwy, Yowchanan) (Greek ioanneß, Ioannes), YHWH has graced; writer of the Fourth Gospel, son of Zebedee and Salome, brother of Ya`akov (“James”) the elder. He is the disciple who (without mention by name) is spoken of in the Gospel that he recorded as especially dear to Yeshua, and is the author of the book of Revelation. [RETURN]

10-3a. Philip (Greek filippoß, Philippos, lover of horses), became of the seven deacons of the Messianic Community in Jerusalem. [RETURN]

10-3b. Bar-Talmai (Bartholomew, also called Nathanael in John’s gospel account) (Hebrew ymlt rb, Son of Talmai, furrowed) (Greek barqolomaioß, Bartholomaios) [RETURN]

10-3c. T'oma (Thomas) (Hebrew/Aramaic ~wat, Ta'owm, twin) (Greek qomaß, Thomas), also called Didymus (Greek didumoß, Didumos, “two fold” or “twain”) [RETURN]

10-3d. Mattityahu (Matthew, also called Levi) (Hebrew, מַתִּתְיָהוּ, Mattithiah, gift of YHWH) (Greek maqeteß, Mathetes, a learner, pupil, disciple); possibly named for the father of the Maccabee heroes. The story of the Maccabees can be found in 1 Maccabees and 2 Maccabees, in Josephus’ Antiquities of the Jews, Book XII, Chapters 6-8) and in Talmudic references (Shabbat 21b, Shabbat 23a - related to the candles). [RETURN]

10-3e. Ya`akov (Jacob the younger) (see 10-2d); Bar-Halfai (son of Kheleph, @lx, exchange; Greek alfaioß, Alphaios, changing). [RETURN]

10-3f. Taddai (Thaddaeus, qaddaioß, Thaddaios, large hearted, courageous); also called Y'hudah Ben-Ya`akov [Judah the son of Jacob] in Luke 6:16 and Acts 1:13 and Labbai/Lebbeus/Lebbaeus in some translations. [RETURN]

10-4a. Shim`on (Simon) (see 10-2b) the Zealot (see next note) [RETURN]

10-4b. Y'hudah (Judah. Judas) (hdwhy, praised or praiser of God; from hdy, yadah, to confess, to confess the name of God) [RETURN]

The Sicarius: After Israel came under the control of the Roman Empire, a group of political activists known as Zealots arose, who both advocated and attempted to bring about the overthrow of Rome. A particularly violent subgroup of the Zealots was a band of assassins known as the Sicarii (also spelled Sacarii), or assassins (also known as “dagger men”), after the Latin word for the short ice-pick-like daggers with which they dispatched (usually via a quick thrust to the base of the brain) anyone they felt to be a Roman sympathizer. Among Yeshua’s talmidim were at least two members of the party of the Zealots: Shimeon Zealotes (Simon the Zealot) and Yehudah Sicarius (or Judah the Assassin), usually translated into English as “Judas Iscariot.” Bar-Abba (Barabbas, or Son of a Father), who was released by Governor Pilate in exchange for Yeshua’s execution (Matthew 27:11-25), is thought to have been a notorious Sicarius, and was probably a close associate of Y'hudah. [RETURN]

10-5. Shomron (!wrmX); Samaria; the region of northern Israel between Judea and Galilee, formerly belonging to the tribe of Ephraim and the half-tribe of Manasseh. The inhabitants of this region were called Samaritans (Shomronim, ~y!wrmX).

When the ten tribes were carried away into captivity to Assyria, the king of Assyria sent people from Cutha, Ava, Hamath, and Sepharvaim to inhabit Samaria (2 Kings 17:24; Ezra 4:2-11). These foreigners intermarried with the Israelite population that was still in and around Samaria. These “Samaritans” at first worshipped the idols of their own nations, but being troubled with lions, they supposed it was because they had not honored the God of that territory. A Jewish priest was therefore sent to them from Assyria to instruct them in the Jewish religion. They were instructed from the books of Moses, but still retained many of their idolatrous customs. The Samaritans embraced a religion that was a mixture of Judaism and idolatry (2 Kings 17:26-28). Because the Israelite inhabitants of Samaria had intermarried with the foreigners and adopted their idolatrous religion, Samaritans were generally considered “half-breeds” and were universally despised by the Jews. [Source: gotquestions.org] [RETURN]

10-6. The talmidim were specifically not to take the message of the Kingdom to anyone but Israel; not to the Goyim (gentiles, not-Jewish people) or to the Samaritans (who were half-Jewish). Only after Israel had been offered the Kingdom and rejected it would it then be offered to others. [RETURN]

10-7. I simply cannot stress strongly enough that neither Yeshua nor His Emissaries (Apostles) ever taught a “gospel of salvation.” Their message always was, and our should still be, “Repent, because the Kingdom of Heaven is at hand.” [RETURN]

10-8. Tzara'at, Hebrew t[rc. Generally translated as “leprosy” but specifically not Hansen’s disease. It is a highly-contagious skin disease, or an infestation of mold or mildew on clothing or in a building. [RETURN]

10-12. Shalom aleikhem: peace be unto you. [RETURN]

10-13. Shalom (~wlX) is almost always usually translated as “peace.” But it is really much more than that. Shalom embodies everything in your life that promotes peace in it: completeness, soundness, welfare, peace and quiet, tranquility, safety, soundness in body, welfare, health, prosperity, contentment, friendship with others, and friendship with God (especially in covenant relationship). [RETURN]

10-14. Don’t take anything at all from that place with you when you leave, not even their dust. [And, in my personal opinion, when you hear heresy, anti-Semitism, supercessionism, replacement theology, anti-Torah comments, etc. being taught in any church meeting, you should make a public witness of wiping you feet as you immediately get up and leave! By remaining in that assembly, you are giving witness that you support that teaching.] [RETURN]

10-17. Courts; Greek sunedrion, sunedrion. Any assembly (esp. of magistrates, judges, ambassadors), whether convened to deliberate or pass judgment. This would refer to the local beit din, or house of judgment, a small tribunal or council of rabbis which every Jewish town had for the decision of halachic cases. [RETURN]

10-22a. Holds on, endures; Greek upomeno, hupomeno. To bear ill treatments bravely and calmly; to hold fast under misfortunes and trials to one’s faith in Messiah to preserve. [RETURN]

10-22b. Preserved from harm; Greek sozo, sozo, to save, keep safe and sound, to rescue from danger or destruction. Since all of the emissaries except Yochanan were eventually murdered for their faith, Yeshua was obviously referring to being preserved only for this particular mission; see verse 23. [RETURN]

10-23a. Amen. See note 5-18a. [RETURN]

10-23. If you are reading this, it is painfully obvious that the Son of Man has not yet returned to establish His kingdom (or maybe the King will preserve the Internet in the Kingdom; I certainly don’t know.) Yeshua was therefore obviously not telling this talmidim that the kingdom would be established before they finished preaching the gospel throughout the towns of Israel. He was not misleading them; the “Son of Man” (the Messiah) was literally revealed through His crucifixion and resurrection, which indeed occurred before they had completed preaching the gospel throughout Israel. [RETURN]

10-25a. Ba`al-Zibbul or Ba`al-Z'vuv (manuscripts differ), Beelzebul or Beelzebub; Hebrew bwbz l[b, “lord of a fly” or “lord of the dung-heap.” In post-Biblical Hebrew, the root bwbz means “dung” (not surprising if one considers where flies prefer to hang out.) A derogatory name for the Adversary, Satan. Worshipped by the Philistines in Ekron (2Kings 1:2). There is an interesting note in Matthew: A Tabbinic Source Commentary and Language Bible by Al Garza, PhD (pages 204-205). [RETURN TO 10:25]   [RETURN TO 12:24]

10-25b. Matthew’s chronology seems to be a bit out of sequence, since he doesn’t record until 12:24-27 the event to which Yeshua is here referring. But that’s not a problem, since only Luke intentionally presented a chronological narrative. [RETURN]

10-28. Gei-Hinnom, Hebrew ~nnh ayg; Greek geenna Geenna. Gehenna, the valley of Hinnom, the city dump south of Jerusalem, where the filth and dead animals of the city were cast out and burned. The fires of Gehenna never burned out, making it an appropriate metaphor for the Lake of Fire, the place of eternal torment for Satan, his demons, and unredeemed humanity. [RETURN]

10-29a. An assarion is a small coin worth one tenth of a drachma or a sixteenth of a denarius. An assarion is approximately the wages of one half hour of agricultural labor. [RETURN]

10-29b. We need to understand that there are two separate aspects to God’s will. Everything that happens is according to His will, yet He permits things to occur that He does not directly desire. For example, Lucifer, Adam, and Eve fell contrary to His preference, and He does not desire that anyone should die without being redeemed. Thus we can see that His determinate will speaks of those things that He decrees to come to pass, or those things He directly or indirectly causes; His permissive will speaks of those things which He allows to come to pass, whether or not He desires them. [RETURN]

10-36. “For a son insults his father, a daughter rises against her mother, daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law; a person's enemies are the members of his own household.” (Micah 7:6) [RETURN]

10-38. How very different this is from the "free grace, no responsibilities" message of the Church! [RETURN]

10-42. Be careful of your theology; “reward” does not equal “salvation.” [RETURN]

Notes on Chapter 11

11-1. Matthew does not record when the twelve returned from their training mission. [RETURN]

11-2. “Are You the Messiah, or should we keep watching for him?” [RETURN]

11-5a. Tzara'at, Hebrew t[rc. Generally translated as “leprosy” but specifically not Hansen’s disease. It is a highly-contagious skin disease, or an infestation of mold or mildew on clothing or in a building. [RETURN]

11-5b. Isaiah 35:5. [RETURN]

11-5c. Isaiah 61:1-4. [RETURN]

11-10. Malachi 3:1. [RETURN]

11-14. Malachi 4:5-4. [RETURN]

11-23. Hebrew lwaX (Sh'ol), Greek adeß (Hades) is the “grave,” or place of the dead, not hell as some versions render the word. Yeshua describes it in Luke 16:19-31. [RETURN]

11-27. Completely know, Greek epiginosko epiginosko, to become thoroughly acquainted with, to know thoroughly; from epi epi, upon or over, and ginosko ginosko, to know, understand, perceive. [RETURN]

Notes on Chapter 12

12-4. 1 Samuel 21:1-6. [RETURN]

12-7. Hosea 6:6. [RETURN]

12-8. If the Son of Man (Yeshua) is Lord of Shabbat (the Sabbath), then Shabbat is His day, the Lord’s day. Thus it is very clear to anyone who has ears to hear that Shabbat, not Sunday, is the Lord’s Day! [RETURN]

12-14. Destroy: Greek apollumi apollumi; to declare that one must be put to death; to kill; to put out of the way entirely, abolish, put an end to ruin. [RETURN]

12-21. Isaiah 42:1-4. [RETURN]

12-23. Son of David or Mashiach ben-David (Messiah, Son of David) is a clearly Messianic title. They were clearly wondering if Yeshua were the Messiah. [RETURN]

12-39. There is considerable debate whether the “sign of Jonah” is that Yeshua was in the grave for three days and three nights, or that people repent (turn from their sins and turn back to God) in His name. [RETURN]

12-42. Queen of the South. Queen of Sheba, see 1Kings 10:1; 2Chron 9:1 [RETURN]

12-45. Although Ruach HaKodesh had not yet been given at the time Yeshua was teaching this, it is important for us to understand that when we enter into a saving relationship with the Master, we are literally “possessed” by Ruach HaKodesh, and He will not share His dwelling with an unclean spirit. It is therefore impossible for a person who is truly “saved” to ever be possessed by an unclean spirit; oppressed or influenced, certainly possible; but never possessed. [RETURN]

Notes on Chapter 13

13-1. A parable is a simple story used to illustrate a moral or spiritual lesson. [RETURN]

13-11. Mystery, Greek musterion, musterion: a hidden or secret thing that is not obvious to the understanding. In the Apostolic Writings this word is frequently used to indicate something that was formerly not common knowledge, but should now be understood by the Messianic Believer. [RETURN]

13-15. Isaiah 6:9-10 [RETURN]

13-16. Spiritually prosperous: Greek makarioß, makarios. But Yeshua spoke Hebrew (or possibly Aramaic), not Greek. The word he used would have been rXa ('ashar). See note 5-3a. [RETURN]

Weat vs. Tares13-25. Darnel is a weed grass (probably bearded darnel or lolium temulentum) that looks very much like wheat until it is mature, when the difference becomes very apparent. [RETURN]

13-33. Literally, three satas. A sata is a dry measure of about three gallons, so this would be a bit more than a bushel. The Holman Christian Standard Bible says 50 pounds; the New American Standard says three pecks. [RETURN]

13-35. Psalm 78:2 [RETURN]

13-42. There will be two reactions to the sentence of eternal condemnation: those who weep and wail with anguish for their failure and loss, and those who gnash their teeth in anger against the just Judge. [RETURN]

Notes on Chapter 14

14-1. Tetrarch, Greek tetragonoß, from tessareß tessares, four, and gonia gonia, corner. After the death of Herod the Great in 4 BCE, his “kingdom” (actually the Roman province of Israel) was divided into four administrative regions, with each of his sons governing one region. The ruler (in name only) of each region was called a tetrarch because he administered one of the four regions. Herod the Tetrarch ruled the Province of Judea, which was created by joining together Judea proper (biblical Judah), Samaria, and Idumea (biblical Edom). Philip the Tetrarch ruled Batanea, with Trachonitis, as well as Auranitis until 34 CE (his domain later being incorporated into the Province of Syria), while Herod Antipas ruled Galilee and Perea until 34 CE. In reality, they were all subject to the governance of the Roman prefect Pontius Pilate from 26 to 36 CE. See the Wikipedia article.  [RETURN]

14-19. Nearly all English translations say that Yeshua blessed the loaves and fish. This translation is based on an unfortunate lack of understanding of Jewish tradition. In Jewish tradition, which Yeshua practiced, it is not the food which is blessed; rather it is God, Who has provided the food, Who is blessed. The traditional b'rakhah (blessing) for bread (or non-specified food in general) is, “Baruch etah, ADONAI Eloheinu, Melech ha olam, ha mozti lechem mein ha aretz. Blessed (praised) are you, ADONAI our God, Who brings forth our bread (food) from the earth.”  [RETURN]

14-20. An entire basket full of “leftovers” for each talmid. This begs the question: if the talmidim only had five loaves of bread and two fish among them, where did the twelve baskets come from?  [RETURN]

14-21. Assuming that at least half the men present had their wives with them, and that many of them had at least a few of their children with them, the total number of people fed may have been as many as 8,000 or more.  [RETURN]

14-24. The Sea of Galilee is notorious for strong winds or storms that occur suddenly and without warning, whipping the water into extremely dangerous conditions with high waves.  [RETURN]

14-25a. About 4:00 am. Literally, “in the fourth watch.” The Roman method of timekeeping, under which first-century Israel lived, divided the night into four approximately equal “guards” or “watches” during which the night guards would be on duty. Assuming (for sake of illustration) sunset at 6:00 pm and sunrise at 6:00 am, the first watch would be 6:00-9:00 pm, the second watch 9:00 pm to midnight, the third watch midnight to 3:00 am, the fourth watch 3:00 am to 6:00 am.  [RETURN]

14-25b. “He alone stretches out the heavens and treads on the waves of the sea” ( Job 9:8).  [RETURN]

14-27. Greek ego eimi ego eimi, literally I AM. This is the Greek equivalent of the Hebrew sacred name of God, hwhy. In my carefully considered opinion, Yeshua here announced to His talmidim His sacred name from eternity past. I think that He essentially said to them, “Be strong! I am the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. You have nothing to be afraid of.”  [RETURN]

14-28. Lord: Greek kurioß Kurios. This is the Greek equivalent of the Hebrew !wda Adon. It may mean sir or master, or it may be the Hebrew circumlocution for the Sacred Name, ADONAI. If Yeshua said what I think He said, then it would be perfectly logical for Kefa to call out to him as ADONAI.  [RETURN]

14-31. Little Faith: see note 6-30.  [RETURN]

14-33. Those who would say that Yeshua was not deity, but only a “good” man, would have difficulty explaining how He could accept worship — something that not even the angels will do — and still be considered “good.”  [RETURN]

14-36. Tzitzit: fringes or tassels on the corners of Jewish garments. See Numbers 15:38-40. See also 9:20-21.  [RETURN]

Notes on Chapter 15

15-2. Washing their hands had absolutely nothing to do with cleanliness. They were all upset that the talidim weren’t going through the complex n'tilat-yadayim hand-washing ritual before eating. This ritual was a Rabbinical tradition and not required by Torah.  [RETURN]

15-4a. Exodus 20:12; Deuteronomy 5:16.  [RETURN]

15-4b. Exodus 21:17; Leviticus 20:9.  [RETURN]

15-9. Isaiah 29:13. The two greatest objections that I have regarding the traditional Jewish position toward the “Oral Torah” are these:

(1) The Sages claim that the oral tradition, tradition of the fathers, or “Oral Torah” is that body of teaching that God gave to Moses at Sinai which he did not commit to writing, but passed on orally down through the generations. However, the written Torah says: “Moses wrote down all the words of the LORD.” (Exodus 24:4)

(2) Through the oral tradition, the sages assigned to themselves the same authority as Moses had, therefore rendering their own opinions as authoritative, or even more so, that the Torah.  [RETURN]

15-22. Son of David is a clearly Messianic title. The woman was calling Him Messiah. This Canaanite woman saw what the Jewish people were missing.  [RETURN]

15-25. Greek proskuneo, proskuneo, to kneel or prostrate one’s self; to worship. Literally, to kiss the hand toward; a token of reverence. Among the Orientals, especially the Persians, to fall upon the knees and touch the ground with the forehead as an expression of profound reverence.  [RETURN]

15-29. “He climbed up a hill…” The traditional site of this event is a hill not more than about a hundred feet or so above the level of the water. However, Matthew is comparing Yeshua to Moses, so he calls it a mountain. Moses went up a mountain to receive Torah, but Yeshua went up a mountain to give Torah. “… and sat down.” The traditional posture for rabbis when they are teaching is sitting, not standing.  [RETURN]

15-33. Apparently they weren’t paying attention when he fed a larger crowd in Galilee just a few days earlier.  [RETURN]

Notes on Chapter 16

16-1. As the spiritual leaders of Israel, the Pharisees and Sadducees had a responsibility to check out the claims of anyone claiming to be a prophet; much more so, anyone claiming to be the Messiah. However, they were not coming to test Him to see if His claims were true, their goal was to prove that they were false.  [RETURN]

16-4. Greek genea, genea, may be used literally to refer to the the lineage of a particular family, to a time span of between 30 and 40 years, or to the entire multitude of humanity living at the same time. It may be used metaphorically to refer to a group of people very like each other in endowments, pursuits, and/or character. My feeling is that Yeshua was using the metaphorical sense.  [RETURN]

16-17. Simon, son of Jonah.  [RETURN]

16-18a. Greek petroß, petros, a specific rock or stone.  [RETURN]

16-18b. A strong, rocky foundation. Greek petra, petra, a projecting rock, rocky ground, a large stone. Referring not to Kefa [Peter], but to the strength of his divinely revealed confession that Yeshua is Israel’s Messiah.  [RETURN]

16-18c. As Yeshua said this, they were very probably standing in the complex of the temple to the Roman god Pan just outside Caesarea Phillipi. Notice the very large cave opening behind the building at the left edge of the picture. This was called the Grotto, or Cave, of Pan, but was colloquially referred to as “the Gates of Sheol.” Although scholars are divided about the meaning of His words, “the gates of Sheol will not prevail against it,” my personal opinion is that what He meant was that all the forces of paganism and their false gods (which are actually demons) will not be able to withstand the Messianic Community. Standing in front of this huge rocky escarpment, I can see him pointing out this huge rock, and then pointing to Kefa and saying, "You see this huge rock face? Impressive isn’t it? But I'm telling you that My Holy Community is going to be built on the solid rock foundation of Kefa’s revelation that I am the Messiah.”

Reconstruction Drawing of the Sanctuary of Pan at the site of Ancient Paneas, Caesarea Philippi
Reconstruction Painting of the Sanctuary of Pan at the site of Ancient Paneas, Caesarea Philippi
In this Painting of the First Century Sanctuary of Pan there is depicted from left to right:
   1. The Temple of Augustus Called the Augusteum (On the Left)
   2. The Grotto or Cave of the God Pan (Behind the Temple of Augustus)
   3. The Court of Pan and the Nymphs (To the Right of the Temple of Augustus)
   4. The Temple of Zeus (In the Middle)
   5. The Court of Nemesis (To the Right of the Temple of Zeus)
   6. The Tomb Temple of the Sacred Goats (Upper Right)
   7. The Temple of Pan and the Dancing Goats (Bottom Right)
(Source: BibleHistory.com)

Against the cliff and in the large cave on the left, in the third century BC, was a cult center to the fertility god Pan. This center probably was built to compete with the high place at Dan, about three miles away. The presence of the spring forming the large stream, called the Banias River, fit well with the belief that the fertility gods provided water. Its sudden emergence from the ground at the floor of the cliff, a long rock face more than 100 feet high, supported the pagan belief that the gods went to the underworld (Hades) and reemerged each year.

Originally, the spring gushed from the large cave, probably persuading the people of the area that the cave provided an entrance to the underworld itself. An earthquake in the nineteenth century collapsed the roof of the cave, and the water now gushes from the cliff below the cave. Josephus described the cave as a deep cavern filled with water, the bottom of which no one had ever reached. The water from the spring may have been collected first in a "sacred lake" before it flowed west, joining with two other spring-fed streams (including one near Dan) to become the Jordan River.

A natural terrace against the cliff was the platform for the temple to Pan. The opening to the right of the cave is cut into the rock and leads to a niche in which an idol stood. This niche was probably in the sacred area and allowed the priests to engage in ritualistic water ceremonies. The entire area covered more than 3,000 square yards.

In the cliff face to the right of the opening are more niches to house the statues of gods. Herod also built a white temple nearby, to honor the Roman emperor Augustus. Because of the worship of Pan, the area was named Paneon, or Panias. It is still known today as Banyas, based on the Arabic pronunciation of Panias. King Herod Philip named the area Caesarea Philippi.

Jesus came here to call his disciples to challenge the gates of hell. Seeing the "living water" rush from the foot of the rock provides a picture of Jesus, the Son of the living God, whose community will be built on the solid rock of God's saving truth.

Source: Ray Vander Laan, “That the World May Know,” an excellent Bible-teaching series that I highly recommend.  [RETURN]

16-19. “Keys to the Kingdom” absolutely does not indicate that Peter is the gatekeeper at the “Pearly Gates” of heaven. All of the disciples were bondservants (slaves) of the Master Yeshua. When a slave was given the keys to his master’s house, that meant he was the steward, or caretaker, of the master‘s “kingdom.” Thus Yeshua was entrusting to the His disciples the stewardship of His holy community.

“Binding and loosing” or “prohibiting and permitting” are common terms in both ancient and modern Judaism which refer to the authority of the Beit Din (house of judgment, a body of ruling elders) to issue halakhic judgments, rulings about the interpretation of the application of Torah to daily life and to make rulings between individuals, like a justice of the peace or a local magistrate. Before the destruction of the Temple this authority was in the hands of the Sanhedrin as Israel’s supreme court, with lesser courts (Battei Din) operating out of most synagogues. Here Yeshua is taking that halakhic authority from the Sanhedrin and handing it to His disciples, who will soon become the Emissaries of His Kingdom on earth.  [RETURN]   [RETURN TO 18:18]

16-27a. Greek doxa, doxa, splendour, brightness; the kingly majesty which belongs to God as supreme ruler; majesty in the sense of the absolute perfection of deity. The Complete Jewish Bible uses Sh'khinah, Hebrew שׁכִינה, from !kX, shakan, to settle down, abide, or dwell. It denotes the dwelling or settling of the divine presence of God and his cosmic glory. It is used to describe the glory of God that filled the Tabernacle and Temple.  [RETURN]

16-27b. Psalm 62:12; Proverbs 24:12  [RETURN]

16-28. This was fulfilled six days later when Kefa, Ya'akov, and Yochanan saw Yeshua in his full glory. [RETURN]

Notes on Chapter 17

17-3. Yeshua frequently said that the Torah and the Prophets testified or spoke of Him. There are three divisions of the Tanakh, or Hebrew Bible: the Torah (the five books of Moses), the Prophets, and the Writings. Here we see the literal fulfillment of Yeshua’s statement, with Moses representing the Torah and Elijah, considered the chief of the prophets, representing the Prophets. I believe is appropriate that these two men of God will be the two witnesses mentioned in Revelation 11:1-14. [RETURN]

17-24. The half-shekel Temple tax, called simply the didrachma because of the coin usually to pay it. A didrachma, or double-drachma, is a Greek silver coin worth two drachmas, about as much as two Roman denarii, or about two days’ wages. It was commonly used to pay the half-shekel Temple tax, because two drachmas were worth one-half shekel of silver. [RETURN]

17-27. A stater is a silver coin equivalent to four Attic or two Alexandrian drachmas, or a Jewish shekel: just exactly enough to cover the half-shekel temple tax for two people. [RETURN]

Notes on Chapter 18

18-5. Greek decomai, dechomai, to receive favorably, give ear to, embrace, make one’s own, approve, not to reject; to receive into one's family to bring up or educate. Perhaps what Yeshua meant was that whoever welcomes a child, or a child-like adult, into a close relationship welcomes Him into the same kind of relationship. [RETURN]

18-6. Greek skandalizo skandalizo; to cause a person to begin to distrust and desert one whom he ought to trust and obey; to cause to fall away. Although some translations, and many interpreters, equate this to sin, the word is not referring to sin (defined in the Scriptures as violations of Torah). It is referring to anything that would cause have our faith in Yeshua diminished. [RETURN]

18-8. This is obviously hyperbole, the use of exaggeration as a rhetorical device or figure of speech. It emphasizes, evokes strong feelings, and creates strong impressions. As a figure of speech, it is seldom meant to be taken literally. Yeshua surely does not advocate maiming ourselves. His intent is that we get rid of anything in our life that would interfere with our relationship to Him. [RETURN]

18-10. The phrase “see the face” is often used as an idiom for being in the presence of someone. I take this to mean that each believer has an angel assigned, and that angel has direct access to God at all times. [RETURN]

18-11. Greek sozo, sozo, to save, keep safe and sound, to rescue from danger or destruction; to preserve one who is in danger of destruction, to save or rescue; to deliver from the penalties of the Messianic judgment. [RETURN]

18-16. Deuteronomy 19:15 [RETURN]

18-18. Prohibiting and permitting, see note 16-19. [RETURN]

18-19. This authority is given specifically to His disciples, and by extension, to those Elders who will rule over Messianic Communities that are to follow. Note that in verse 18:1 Yeshua is speaking only to His disciples. [RETURN]

18-20. The traditional Christian interpretation of this sentence is that if two or three Believers agree on anything in prayer, they may confidently petition Heaven with their request and it will be granted. However, the context absolutely prohibits this interpretation. The context is that of establishing a Beit Din to to determine halakhah (permitted and prohibited conduct) for the Messianic Community. If a matter is brought before a two- or three-member Messianic Beit Din, they can be assured that the authority of God in heaven stands behind their decision. [RETURN]

18-24. Ten thousand talents represents an extremely large sum of money, equivalent to about 60,000,000 denarii, where one denarius was typical of one day’s wages for agricultural labor. This debt would be worth many millions of today’s dollars. [RETURN]

18-28. 100 denarii was about one sixtieth of a talent, or about two months’ wages for an agricultural worker. [RETURN]

18-34. Jailer: Greek basanisteß, basanistes, torturer; one who elicits the truth by the use of the rack; an inquisitor; also used of a jailer doubtless because the business of torturing was also assigned to him. [RETURN]

Notes on Chapter 19

19-4. Genesis 1:27 [RETURN]

19-5. Genesis 2:24 [RETURN]

19-9. The only reason that God accepts for divorce is sexual immorality. Anyone who divorces for any other reason is still married in the eyes of God. Any and all sexual activity afterwards is adultery. [RETURN]

19-16. It is of utmost eternal significance that every single time anyone asked Yeshua what they needed to do to have eternal life, He directed them to obey the teaching of Torah! At no place in any of the four Gospel accounts is it ever recorded that “Yeshua went up on a hill, and He sat down, and began to teach His disciples, ‘Believe in Me for the forgiveness of your sins, so that you can have a personal relationship with Me and go to heaven when you die.’” Nor is that message ever taught by any of the Apostles in the entire collection of Apostolic Writings (identified as the “New Testament” in Christian Bibles). That teaching is purely a human tradition of the Christian Church. [See “True” Gospel and How to Have Eternal Life.] [RETURN]

19-19a. Exodus 20:12-16; Deuteronomy 5:16-20 [RETURN]

19-19b. Leviticus 19:18 [RETURN]

19-20. He was clearly not telling the whole truth; while he may not have broken these specific mitzvot, it is impossible for him to have kept the entire Torah, as he was implying. [RETURN]

19-21a. Greek teleioß, teleios: brought to its end, finished; wanting nothing necessary to completeness; perfect; consummate human integrity and virtue; full grown, adult, of full age, mature. [RETURN]

19-21b. Many false teachers who live in multi-million dollar homes and have a fleet of very expensive cars teach that this means you need to sacrifice what you have and send it to them so they can have even more. This is a lie from the pit of hell, and they will face judgment for their false teaching — all of it! It does not even apply to everyone who would follow Yeshua. He was giving this one individual a very specific personal test so that this young man would realize what he valued more than anything else — that is, what he kept as his personal god. [RETURN]

19-21c. This does not mean that he would have treasure when he gets to heaven some day. It means that in heaven there are records kept of what we do on earth, and that he would have some entries in the “plus column” of his record. [RETURN]

19-24a. Some interpreters have tried to explain that somewhere in Jerusalem there was a small gate called “the needle’s eye” that could be used after the main city gates were locked for the night. However it was so small that a camel would have to be completely unloaded and then get down on its knees to crawl through this gate. Allegedly, this was so no armed invader could enter on horseback and attack the city. This makes a nice story, but there is no archaeological evidence that such a gate ever existed. Other interpreters say that “gamla” is the Aramaic word for camel, but that it has a secondary meaning of a large rope, which was apparently woven from camel’s hair. But the Hebrew word for camel is lmg, gamal, so why do we need to refer to the Aramaic language to propose another meaning? Why is it so difficult to simply accept the literal meaning of what Yeshua said — a literal camel and a literal needle, since he was obviously using hyperbole in any event? [RETURN]

19-24b. Here we see Yeshua using the terms “Kingdom of Heaven” in verse 23 and “Kingdom of God” on verse 24 synonymously. See note 3-2b. [RETURN]

19-25. Saved: Greek sozo, sozo, to be delivered from the penalties of the Messianic judgment; to be protected from the evils which obstruct the reception of the Messianic deliverance. They were asking, “If it is so hard for someone to to enter the Kingdom, then how is it possible for anyone to? [RETURN]

19-28a. Regeneration, Greek paliggenesia, paliggenesia, the renewal of the world to take place after its destruction by fire. [RETURN]

19-28b. Greek doxa, doxa, splendour, brightness; magnificence, excellence, preeminence, dignity, grace; most glorious condition, most exalted state; the kingly majesty which belongs to Him as supreme ruler, majesty in the sense of the absolute perfection of deity. [RETURN]

Notes on Chapter 20

20-2. The denarius was the principal silver coin of the Roman Empire, and was the standard daily wage for agricultural workers. [RETURN]

20-3. Time was measured from sunrise to sunset, so the third hour would be about 9:00 AM. [RETURN]

20-5. About noon and 3:00 P. M. [RETURN]

20-6. About 5:00 PM [RETURN]

20-21. Next to the King, these two seats represented the greatest authority in the kingdom; the seat on the right was next to the King in authority, the one on the left was next in authority. [RETURN]

Notes on Chapter 2

21-1. Bethphage. A small village between Jericho and Jerusalem, close to Bethany, a Sabbath’s journey from Jerusalem. [RETURN]

21-5. Zechariah 9:9 [RETURN]

21-9a. Greek wsanna, transliteration of Hebrew הושיעה נא, hôshia-nā', please deliver us. [RETURN to 21:9]  [RETURN to 21:15]

21-9b. Psalm 118:26 [RETURN]

21-10. In order to fulfill the type of the Passover Lamb, these events had to occur on the 10th day of the Hebrew month Nisan (also called Abib). The lamb was to be taken into the house on the 10th day of the month and carefully examined for blemishes until the 14th day of Nisan, when the lamb was killed “at twilight.” We can therefore calculate that Yeshua entered Jerusalem on Saturday, the 10th of Nisan and was examined for blemishes “in the house” (the Temple was also called “the House” because ADONAI said, “My House will be called a House of Prayer for all nations”) for the required four days, then He was executed on Wednesday, the 14th of Nisan, not on Friday the 15th. In order to fulfill the “Sign of Jonah,” wherein Jonah was in the belly of the great fish for three days and three nights, or 72 hours, then He was buried just before sunset on Wednesday evening and was resurrected 72 hours later, on Saturday evening just at sunset. (Exodus 12:1-6) [RETURN]

21-13a. Isaiah 56:7 [RETURN]

21-13b. Jeremiah 7:11 [RETURN]

21-16. Psalm 8:2 [RETURN]

21-19. This should be an important lesson for “believers” who do not produce the “fruit of repentance.” See Matthew 3:8-10. [RETURN]

 

21-42. Psalm 118:22-23 [RETURN]

 

 

 

 

28-1. On the Jewish calendar, the day begins and ends at sunset, not at midnight or sunrise. Shabbat (the Sabbath) extends from 18 minutes before sunset on Friday evening until an hour after sunset on Saturday evening. The Church teaches that the Resurrection occurred at about sunrise on Sunday morning, but they ignore the truth that the Bible was written exclusively by Jews to a predominately Jewish audience. They fail to correctly understand the Jewish method of time-keeping. The Scriptures say that the women found the empty tomb just as the first day of the week was beginning, which would be just a few minutes after Shabbat ended, or about an hour after sunset on Saturday evening. [RETURN]


Notes to be processed:

[100] back to 22:32 Exodus 3:6

[101] back to 22:37 Deuteronomy 6:5

[102] back to 22:39 Leviticus 19:18

[103] back to 22:44 Psalm 110:1

[104] back to 23:5 tefillin are small leather pouches that some Jewish men wear on their forehead and arm in prayer. They are used to carry a small scroll with some Scripture in it. See Deuteronomy 6:8.

[105] back to 23:5 or, tzitziot

[106] back to 23:14 Some Greek manuscripts reverse the order of verses 13 and 14, and some omit verse 13, numbering verse 14 as 13.

[107] back to 23:15 or, Hell

[108] back to 23:23 cumin is an aromatic seed from Cuminum cyminum, resembling caraway in flavor and appearance. It is used as a spice.

[109] back to 23:25 TR reads “self-indulgence” instead of “unrighteousness”

[110] back to 23:33 or, Hell

[111] back to 23:39 Psalm 118:26

[112] back to 24:15 Daniel 9:27; 11:31; 12:11

[113] back to 24:28 or, eagles

[114] back to 24:29 Isaiah 13:10; 34:4

[115] back to 24:31 or, trumpet

[116] back to 24:34 The word for “generation” (genea) can also be translated as “race.”

[117] back to 25:7 The end of the wick of an oil lamp needs to be cut off periodically to avoid having it become clogged with carbon deposits. The wick height is also adjusted so that the flame burns evenly and gives good light without producing a lot of smoke.

[118] back to 25:40 The word for “brothers” here may be also correctly translated “brothers and sisters” or “siblings.”

[119] back to 26:6 The unpointed Peshitta Aramaic word is either Ga'Rabba “leper” or Garaba “potter” or “jar merchant.”

[120] back to 26:26 TR reads “blessed” instead of “gave thanks for”

[121] back to 26:31 Zechariah 13:7

[122] back to 27:9 some manuscripts omit “Jeremiah”

[123] back to 27:10 Zechariah 11:12-13; Jeremiah 19:1-13; 32:6-9

[124] back to 27:35 TR adds “that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet: ‘They divided my garments among them, and for my clothing they cast lots;’” [see Psalm 22:18 and Yochanan 19:24]

[125] back to 27:41 TR omits “the P'rushim”

[126] back to 27:45 noon

[127] back to 27:45 3:00 P. M.

[128] back to 27:46 TR reads “lama” instead of “lima”

[129] back to 27:46 Psalm 22:1

28-10. The word for “brothers” here may be also correctly translated “brothers and sisters” or “siblings.” back to 28:10

Page originally posted on Wednesday, 06 January 2016

Page last updated on Tuesday, 30 August 2016 11:43 PM
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