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This is my own personal rendering or paraphrase of (and commentary on) the Tanakh and Apostolic Writings. It should not be considered in any way authoritative. It is based on The World English Bible: Messianic Edition, also known as the Hebrew Names Version, which is in the Public Domain.

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My short comments on the text are notated in “maroon pop-up text tips” which are accessed by “hovering” your mouse over the text. [Some short comments look like this.] Longer comments are included in footnotes. I have added emphasis to some phrases simply to call them to your attention.
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The Good News of the Kingdom
According to Yochanan

Chapter 1

The Pre-existence and Deity of Yeshua HaMashiach

1In the beginning[1a] was the Word[1b], and the Word was eternally existing with God,[1c] and the Word was God[1d]. 2The Word was already existing in the beginning with God[2]. 3All things came into being through Him[3a], and without Him nothing that was created came into being.[3b] 4In Him was life,[4] and the life was the Light of mankind. 5The Light shines in the darkness, but the darkness hasn’t comprehended it. [5]

Yochanan the Witness

6There was a man who was sent from God, whose name was Yochanan. 7He came as a witness, to testify about the Light, so that everyone might believe through Him. 8Yochanan was not the Light himself, but he was sent so that he might give testimony about the Light. 9The true Light that enlightens everyone was coming into the world.

10He (the Word/Light) was in the world, and the world was made through Him; but the world didn’t recognize Him. 11He came to His own homeland, but His own people didn’t receive Him. 12But to all those who did receive Him — to those who put their trust in His name, trust in who He really is — to them He gave the right to become God’s children; 13not because of their bloodline, physical will, or human intentions, but because of God.

The Word Made Human

14The Word became human, and lived[14a] among us. We saw His Shekinah,[14b] the Shekinah of the unique and only Son of the Father, full of grace and truth. 15Yochanan testified about Him as He cried out, “This was He about Whom I said, ‘He Who comes after me ranks higher than I, for He existed before me.’” 16We have all received grace upon grace from His fullness. 17For the Torah was given through Moshe, and grace and truth came through Yeshua the Mashiach. 18No one has seen God at any time. The only unique Son,[18a] Who is at the Father’s side in intimate fellowship, He has made Him known to us.[18b]

Yochanan’s Testimony

19This is Yochanan’s testimony: when the Y'hudim[19] sent priests and Levites from Yerushalayim to ask him, “Who are you?” 20he honestly confessed, “I am not the Mashiach.”

21They asked him, “What then? Are you Eliyahu?” He said, “I am not.”[21a]

“Are you the Prophet?”[21b] He answered, “No.”

22Then they said to him, “Who are you? Give us an answer we can take back to those who sent us. What do you say about yourself?”

23He said, “I am the voice of one crying in the wilderness, ‘Make straight the way of ADONAI,’ as Isaiah the prophet said.”[23]

24Those who had been sent were from the Perushim.[24] 25They asked him, “Then why are you immersing people, if you are not the Mashiach, nor Elijah, nor the Prophet?”[25]

26Yochanan answered them, “I immerse in water,[26] but among you stands One Whom you don’t know. 27He is the One Who comes after me, Who is preferred before me, Whose sandal strap I’m not worthy to loosen.” 28These things were done in Beit-Anyah, east of the Yarden,[28] where Yochanan was immersing.

29The next day, he saw Yeshua coming to him, and said, “Look! There is the Lamb of God, Who takes away the sin of the world! 30He is the One I was speaking about whom I said, ‘A Man is coming after me Who me ranks higher than I, for He existed before me.’ 31I didn’t know Him, but the reason I came immersing in water is so He would be made known to Isra'el.” 32Yochanan testified, “I saw Ruach HaKodesh coming down from heaven in the form of a dove, and it remained on him. 33I didn’t recognize him, but He Who sent me to immerse in water said to me, ‘The One on Whom you will see Ruach HaKodesh descending and remaining, He is the One Who immerses in Ruach HaKodesh.’ 34I have seen, and have testified that this is the Son of God.”[34]

Yeshua’s First Talmidim

35The next day Yochanan was standing with two of his talmidim,[35] 36Seeing Yeshua walking, he said, “Look! There is the Lamb of God!” 37The two talmidim heard him speak, and they followed Yeshua. 38Yeshua turned, and saw them following, and said to them, “What are you looking for”

They said to Him, “Rabbi” (which means ‘Teacher’), “where are you staying?”

39He said to them, “Come, and see.”

So they went and saw where He was staying, and they stayed with Him that day. It was about the tenth hour. 40One of the two who heard Yochanan and had followed Yeshua was Andrew, the brother of Shim`on Kefa. 41He first found his own brother, Shim`on, and said to him, “We have found the Mashiach!” (which means “Anointed One”). 42He brought him to Yeshua. Yeshua looked at him and said, “You are Shim`on Bar-Yochanan. You shall be called “Kefa” (the name means “Rock”)[42].

Yeshua Calls Philip and Natan'el

43The next day, having decided to go out into the Galil, Yeshua found Philip. Yeshua said to him, “Follow me.” 44Philip was from Beit-Tzaidah, the town where Andrew and Peter lived. 45Philip found Natan'el, and told him, “We’ve found the one Moshe wrote about in the Torah, and also the Prophets. He’s Yeshua Ben-Yosef, from Natzeret.”

46Natan'el answered, “Can anything good come out of Natzaret?”[46]

Philip said to him, “Come and see.”

47Yeshua saw Natan'el coming toward him, and said about him, “Here’s a true Israelite indeed; there’s nothing false about him!”

48Natan'el asked Yeshua, “How do you know me?”

Yeshua answered him, “Before Philip called you, when you were under the fig tree, I saw you.”

49Natan'el answered him, “Rabbi, you are the Son of God! You are King of Israel![49]

50Yeshua answered him, “Just because I told you, ‘I saw you underneath the fig tree,’ you believe? You will see greater things than that!” 51He told him, “Most certainly I tell you that you will see heaven opened, and the angels of God going up and coming down on the Son of Man.”


Notes on Chapter 1

1-1a. Before the beginning of time, in all eternity before anything except God existed, there was the Word. [RETURN]

1-1b. The Greek term translated “Word” is logos (logoß). Literally, a logos is the sound (or its written equivalent) by which an object is identified, and encompasses all that is to be known about that object; therefore a logos is an exact representation of that object. A word, uttered by a living voice, embodies a conception or idea of what someone has said. About 500-600 B.C.E, the Greek philosopher Heraclitus first used the term Logos to designate the divine reason or plan which coordinates our changing universe; that is, the Mind that is behind all order in the created universe, which causes the universe to obey the natural laws, such as gravity, mathematics, and morality. Without this divine Mind, or “the Word,” the universe would collapse into utter chaos. “Philo (20 B.C.E - 50 C.E.), a Jewish philosopher heavily influenced by Plato, taught that the logos was God’s creative principle in the realm of pure thought, which cannot have any direct association with anything in the tangible realm of matter. [Charles Swindoll, Swindoll’s Living Insights New Testament Commentary, Volume 4, Insights on John. Tyndale, 2014, Kindle version, location 524.] [RETURN]

1-1c. The KJV, NASB, and others read, “the Word was with God.” The Greek word translated “was” is the imperfect past tense of the Greek word eimi (eijmiv) to be, to exist, to happen, to be present. The Greek imperfect past tense describes an action without specific beginning or end that was continuously occurring in the past. The Septuagint, the Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible in the third century B.C.E., uses the phrase ego eimi (ego eimi) to translate hwhy (yod-hey-vav-hey, YHWH) the Name by which HaShem identified Himself to Moshe (Moses) from the burning bush: “I AM WHO I AM.” In the original Hebrew, it could easily be interpreted as “the self-existent One.” The Logos was eternally and infinitely self-existing with God for all eternity past and will continue to exist with Him for all eternity future; He has no beginning and He has no end. In order for the Logos to exist with God, He must somehow be “beside,” “near to,” or “in intimate fellowship with” God. [RETURN]

1-1d. “… and the Word was God” as to His very nature. Not only is the Logos (Word) eternally and infinitely self-existing from all eternity past into and beyond all eternity future with God, the Logos is, in fact, God Himself. Everything that is true about God is also true about the Logos. [RETURN]

1-2. Yochanan emphasizes that the Logos did not come into existence at any time, but He was eternally self-existing with God as God. [RETURN]

1-3a. “All things were made through Him.” The Logos was the Creative Agent through which everything that exists came into existence. [RETURN]

1-3b. John emphasizes that there is nothing that exists that was not created by the Logos. In the ancient Hebrew mind, as today, there are only two states of existence: that which had a beginning, and that which does not. Everything that had a beginning was created; everything that does not have a beginning is Deity. Since the Logos had no beginning, He is clearly Deity. Why is this so important? Because even today there are false teachers (Jehovah’s Witnesses and others) who claim that Yeshua, the eternally self-existing Logos, was the first created Being Who then created all other created things. Others (the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints [Mormons] and others, even some mainline “Christian” denominations) teach that Yeshua is not eternally self-existing, but that He came into existence as do all humans, through physical relations between His parents. Also, many uninformed “Christians” believe that He came into existence when He was born in Bethlehem, and later in life He somehow also became Deity. In fact, even when He was in His mother’s womb, the Eternal Logos was holding the entire universe together solely through the power of His will (Colossians 1:16-17). [RETURN]

1-4. “In Him was life.” That is, He is the source of all life. [RETURN]

1-5. “Light” has become almost universally recognized as a metaphor for “Truth.” When a person has gained great wisdom through the attainment of Truth, we say that he has achieved “enlightenment.” In all five of his writings (his Gospel, his three general letters, and the Revelation), Yochanan frequently contrasts “light” against “darkness.” To him, “light” is everything that exists in the presence of truth and goodness; “darkness” is everything that exists in the absence of truth and goodness. See “What is Truth?

The word translated “comprehend” (katalambano, katalambano) has two connotations, either or both of which are appropriate in this context. Positively, it means to lay hold of so as to make one’s own, to obtain, attain to, to take into one’s self, appropriate, to seize upon, take possession of; to understand, perceive, learn, comprehend, to lay hold of with the mind. Negatively it means to suppress, overtake, or overcome for the purpose of destruction. “Darkness” has not appropriated, comprehended, or understood the light; neither has it overcome or suppressed the light. [RETURN]

1-14a. The word translated “lived” or “dwelt” is literally “tabernacled” — to fix one’s tent or tabernacle and live there temporarily. How appropriate that Yeshua was born during the Feast of Tabernacles (Sukkot). [See “Yeshua’s Birthday.” See also the calculations for the date of His birth in Lightfoot’s commentary on Matthew 2.] [RETURN]

1-14b. Shekinah (שכינה, lit. the dwelling) is “the majestic presence or manifestation of God which has descended to ‘dwell’ among men” (Jewish Encyclopedia). It denotes the dwelling or settling of the Divine Presence of God in the form of a “cloud of glory,” especially in the Tabernacle and Temple (for example, Exodus 40:34-35). It is derived from the verb shakan (!kX), to settle down, abide, dwell, tabernacle, or reside. Thus “the Shekinah glory” is “God’s visible abiding glory.” At the Transfiguration, Yochanan (the author of this book), along with Kefa (Peter), and Ya'akov (James), witnessed Yeshua “clothed” in the Shekinah (Matthew 17:1-13, Mark 9:1-13, Luke 9:28-36). [RETURN]

1-18a. At least one reliable manuscript reads “God” instead of “Son.” Thus, David Stern renders it in the Complete Jewish Bible: “…but the only and unique Son, who is identical with God and is at the Father's side…”. [RETURN]

1-18b. “No one has seen God at any time. … [The Son] has made Him known to us.” The Scripture makes it clear that God is invisible (Romans 1:20, 1 Timothy 1:17). ADONAI walked in the Garden with Adam and Havah (Eve) (Genesis 3:8). “ADONAI appeared to Avraham by the oaks of Mamre” (Genesis 18:1) Ya'akov wrestled with ADONAI all night, and ADONAI changed his name to Isra'el (Genesis 32:24-28). Moshe (Moses) saw ADONAI in the burning bush, and spoke to Him “face to face, as a man speaks to his friends” (Exodus 33:11). “[Yeshua HaMashiach] is the image of the invisible God” (Colossians 1:16). Therefore, we must positively conclude that every visible manifestation of God is Yeshua. [RETURN]

1-19. Yochanan uses the term “Y'hudim” [“Jews” in most English translations, literally “Judeans”] not as a reference to people from the area of Judea or from the tribe of Judah, but rather as a disparaging term for the religious leadership in general, primarily the party of the Sadducees, and especially those who were members of the Sanhedrin. [RETURN]

1-21a. Before his birth, the angel Gabriel had told Yochanan’s father that he would be Mashiach’s forerunner “in the spirit and power of Elijah.” Later on Yeshua said, “And if you are willing to accept it, John himself is Elijah who was to come.” See Luke 1:5-17 and Matthew 11:14. [RETURN]

1-21b. “The Prophet” like Moses who was promised: the Mashiach. “ADONAI your God will raise up for you a prophet like me from among you, from your countrymen, you shall listen to him. … ‘I will raise up a prophet from among their countrymen like you, and I will put My words in his mouth, and he shall speak to them all that I command him.’” ( Deuteronomy 18:15, 18) [RETURN]

1-23. Isaiah 40:3. [RETURN]

1-24. The Perushim (Pharisees) were the theological ultra-conservatives of their day, who followed a strict interpretation of the Tanakh (the Hebrew Scriptures). The most important thing to them was that every mitzvah (commandment) in the Torah be followed in exactly the ritual manner they prescribed. God’s intent in giving the mitzvah was irrelevant to them as long as their ritual procedure was observed when following it. They had prescribed that immersion be conducted in the specially-designed pools called mikvot (plural of mikvah, see note 20). In their minds, Yochanan was not a priest, so he had no authority to be supervising immersion, and certainly not in the muddy Jordan River when there were sparkling clean mikvot in Jerusalem for that purpose. [RETURN]

1-25. More than likely, this question should be rendered (or at least interpreted) as, “How dare you immerse people, since you are not the Mashiach, nor Elijah, nor the Prophet?”

It is important to understand that the immersion practiced by Yochanan, Yeshua, the Disciples and Apostles, and the first-century believers in Mashiach was nothing at all like Christian baptism. Rather, it was the Jewish practice of tevilah [lit. immersion], which is the total immersing of one’s self in “living water” such as a stream (like the Jordan River) or a lake. If no stream or lake were available, as at the Temple grounds, a mikvah (container of living water conforming to specific requirements established by the Perushim) was provided. From antiquity to the present Jews the world over have practiced tevilah, for purposes of ritual purity. It can be done with or without the supervision of a priest or Rabbi. To say that Yochanan (or Yeshua, or anyone else) was “immersing” others is not entirely correct, and the misunderstanding comes from association with modern Christian baptism. Yochanan and the others were not performing immersions on others; they were supervising the self-immersion of those who were “being immersed.” Whenever a Jew, ancient or modern, is involved in any activity which would render him (or her) ritually impure, tevilah is in order. Tevilah was required each time before one entered the Temple grounds. The Torah requires tevilah for men after a spontaneous seminal emission, for women after the monthly cycle, for anyone who comes into contact with a dead body or unclean animal, and for both men and women immediately prior to marriage. Yochanan, Yeshua, the Emissaries, and anyone else who spread their message were preaching the same nine-word sermon: “Repent, for the Kingdom of Heaven is at hand!” “Repent” does not mean to change one’s mind as currently taught by the Church; it means to change one’s direction! The True Gospel message is to repent — turn away from sin and return to God. Since sin renders one ritually impure, tevilah was required before one could approach God. Hence, tevilah was being performed as testimony that repentance had taken place. [RETURN]

1-26. Yochanan was not literally immersing people; he was serving as a witness to their tevilah, their self-immersion. [See also “Yeshua’s Immersion.”] [RETURN] 

1-28. “Beit-Anyah, east of the Yarden” or Bethany beyond the Jordan” is not the same as the village of Beit-Anyah where El`azar (Lazarus), Miryam (Mary), and Marta (Martha) lived. [RETURN] 

1-34. The author of this account was an early talmid [disciple] of Yochanan the Immerser, and was probably an eyewitness to these events. Most scholars believe that the “other talmid” mentioned verses 35-42 is the author, who never mentions himself by name in his gospel account. Whenever he wants to indicate himself, he simply uses terms such as “another talmid” or “the talmid whom Yeshua loved.” [RETURN]

1-35. Talmidim, disciples. In first-century Israel, every child was well-educated in the Torah. Education began at the age of six or seven, and was a life-long process. Formal public education in Israel is said to have been instituted by Ezra the Cohen about 459 BCE, who established a public school in Jerusalem, known as the beit sefer (house of the book), that educated fatherless boys about sixteen years and older. By the first century CE, the beit sefer was educating both boys and girls from about six or seven years old to twelve or thirteen years. The curriculum was intensive in Torah, and also included mathematics. Students were required to memorize and be able to properly interpret and teach large segments of the Torah. After about twelve years of age, the age of their bat mitzvah, formal education was completed for most girls, who then concentrated on the “home economics” that they would need to be successful wives and mothers, as they were now of marriageable age. Most young men would also conclude their formal education with their bar mitzvah ceremony in the Temple or synagogue at this point and enter apprenticeship with their father or uncle to learn the family trade. Select young men who were especially gifted students would be admitted to Beit Midrash (house of study, the equivalent of our seminaries), a school in the synagogue where the students would gather to listen to local and visiting rabbis discuss the discourse or exposition of the Torah and the Tanakh. After three or four more years, the rabbis would chose the brightest and best from among the most gifted of the Beit Midrash students to be their talmidim (disciples).

A talmid [disciple], however, is not someone who simply wants to know what his Rabbi (Teacher) knows, but strives to become what his Rabbi is. A talmid is totally consumed with a deep, burning passion, living with the Rabbi every hour of every day, week after week, month after month, and year after year, totally immersed in the Sacred Text, listening to the Rabbi teach and observing how the Rabbi conducts every minute detail of his life, in order to become an exact copy of that Rabbi. Are you ready to become a talmid of the Messiah? [RETURN]

1-42. So Shim`on Bar-Yochanan (Simon son of John) became known as “Rocky Johnson.” See how ridiculous is is for Bible translator to try to translate Hebrew names? Can you imagine what you would think if your Bible contained a letter from a first-century Jewish Rabbi named Rocky Johnson? [RETURN]

1-46. Natzaret (“Branch Town”) was a beautiful, but small and insignificant village out in the middle of nowhere. The entire village consisted of an estimated 35 or so homes covering an area of about ten acres, with a population of maybe 200, but probably not more than 400. A “home” at this time in history was not a single-family dwelling. It consisted of numerous attached dwellings clustered around an open courtyard. Each family unit (parents and children) would live in these individual dwellings, and the collective “home” would be the residence of the entire extended family. More here and here. Surely nothing of any interest or importance could come from such a place. The residents of Natzaret, however, had hopes that the Messiah, the “branch” from the “roots of Jesse” (King David’s father) that was promised by Yesha'yahu (Isaiah) the prophet would come from Branch Town. [RETURN]

1-49. Devout Jews were continually and earnestly praying for Mashiach to come. Apparently Natan'el had been in the courtyard of his home, under his fig tree, praying for Mashiach. When Yeshua said that He had seen Natan'el under his fig tree, Natan'el recognized that Yeshua had heard his prayer. Since only God hears prayer, Yeshua must be God; He was therefore obviously the Mashiach, the King of Isra'el. See Micah 4:1-4 for why this was so significant. [RETURN]


Chapter 2

Yeshua’s First Sign: Water to Wine at Kanah

1The third day,[1a] there was a wedding in Kanah in the Galil.[1b] Yeshua’s mother was there, and 2Yeshua and His talmidim had also been invited. 3When the wine ran out, Yeshua’s mother said to Him, “They don’t have any wine.”[3]

4Yeshua said to her, “Mother, how does that concern us? My time hasn’t come yet.”[4]

5His mother said to the servants, “Do whatever He tells you.” 6There were six stone water pots there being ceremonially purified in the Jewish custom, each with a twenty or thirty gallon capacity. 7Yeshua said to them, “Fill the water pots with water,” so they filled them up to the brim. 8Then He told them, “Now draw some out, and take it to the headwaiter.”[8] So they took some to him. 9When the headwaiter tasted the water which had now become wine, he didn’t know where it came from (but the servants who had drawn the water knew). He called the bridegroom, 10and said to him, “Everyone serves the good wine first, and when the guests have drunk freely, then he serves the lower-quality wine; but you have kept the good wine until now!”[10]

11Yeshua did the first of His miraculous signs[11] in Kanah in the Galil, revealing His glory; and His talmidim came to trust in Him.

12Afterward, Yeshua went down to K'far-Nachum[12a] with His mother, brothers, and talmidim, and stayed there a few days.[12b]

First Pesach — Yeshua Cleanses the Temple

13It was almost time for Pesach in Y'hudah, so Yeshua went up to Yerushalayim.[13] 14In the temple grounds He found those who were selling cattle, sheep, and doves; the money-changers were also sitting there.[14] 15He made a whip out of cords[15a] and drove them all out of the Temple grounds, along with their sheep and cattle. Then He knocked over the money-changers’ tables and scattered their money on the ground.[15b] 16To the dove-sellers He said, “Get these things out of here! How dare you turn My Father’s House into a marketplace!” 17His talmidim remembered that it was written in the Tanakh, “Zeal for your house has consumed me.”[17]

18Then the Y'hudim challenged Him, “Since you think you have authority to do these things, what miraculous sign do you plan to show us for proof of that authority?”

19Yeshua answered them, “Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up.”

20The Y'hudim scoffed, “This Temple was under construction for forty-six years, and you will raise it up in three days?”

21But Yeshua was speaking of the temple of His body. 22So when He was resurrected from the dead, his talmidim remembered that He had said this, and they believed both the Tanakh and that which Yeshua had said.

23When He was in Yerushalayim at the Feast of Pesach, many trusted in His name when they saw the miraculous signs that He had done. 24But Yeshua didn’t commit Himself to them[24], because He knew what everyone was like; 25He didn’t need for anyone to tell Him about a person, because He already knew what was in the person’s heart.


Notes on Chapter 2

2-1a. “The third day…” The third day of the week. First century Israel did not use day names as we do now, when days are named for pagan deities; Sun’s Day, Moon Day, Tiu's Day [the pagan god of war corresponding to Rome’s Mars], Woden’s Day, Thor’s Day, Freya’s Day, Saturn’s Day.

Everything in Israel revolved around Shabbat (the Sabbath). Days were counted, not named, as (1) “the first day of the week,” (2) “the second day of the week,” (3) “the third day of the week,” (4) “the third day toward Shabbat,” (5) “the second day toward Shabbat,” (6) “erev Shabbat (the day before Shabbat, or Shabbat eve),” and (7) Shabbat. Thus Stern translates the day as “Tuesday.” [RETURN]

2-1b. Kanah in the Galil (Cana of Galilee) was the home village of Natan'el. The historic location is not certain, but believed to be Kefr Kennah, a thriving village about 3.75 miles from Natzaret. [RETURN]

Map of the Galilee Region

2-3. Weddings in Biblical-times Isra'el were not the single-afternoon events we are familiar with; they were major “feast and party” events lasting a week or more. The “friend of the bridegroom” (“best man”) was responsible for ensuring that everything ran completely smoothly. This would have been extremely embarrassing to the “best man,” who was apparently Yeshua’s friend. [RETURN]

2-4. “Woman, what does that have to do with us?”(NAS) I have heard it taught, and you probably have also, that Yeshua was rebuking His mother for meddling. I don’t believe that anything could be farther from the truth. “Woman” was a term of endearment that Stern translates as “Mother.” I have followed his example. [RETURN]

“My time hasn’t come yet.” Having been informed by Gabriel before Yeshua was born that He was to be the Messiah, and having watched Him grow and develop for thirty years, Miryam (Mary) was well aware of Who He was, and it seems that perhaps she was nudging Him to step up and announce Himself. Or it could possibly be that she was simply proud of her Son and wanted to show Him off before her friends. Maybe Yeshua was telling her that He wasn’t prepared to act here in His messianic capacity; or perhaps He didn’t want to rush the time when He would stop being just a son to her and start being her Lord. But whatever was going on between them, Yeshua patiently acquiesced to His mother’s request.

2-8. “Ruler of the feast” in some translations. This would be the headwaiter, host, or maître d' (or perhaps the caterer). [RETURN]

2-10. When one has consumed a sufficient quantity of good wine, it’s difficult to recognize when the quality of the next glass has diminished.

I really grow weary of (and, yes, annoyed by) those who claim that Believers should never partake of wine, in spite of the fact that wine was (and still is) an integral part of Jewish life and an important part of every Shabbat and feast day. They insist that Yeshua did not change water to wine, that "wine" in Scripture refers to non-fermented, sweet grape juice. The most polite reply I can make to such absolute nonsense is "poppycock!" In the Greek language, the word for wine is οἶνος (oinos) and the word for juice is χυμός (chymos). Cannot Ruach HaKodesh inspire the Gospel writers to use the correct word?

In the days before modern refrigeration, the only way possible to have fresh, sweet grape juice is to drink it immediately after the grapes have been crushed. After only a few hours — a day at most — of storage, the grape juice would have begun to ferment and become wine. Why do some expect us to abandon all common sense when we come to faith in Messiah? What do these modern “Pharisees” do with God’s instruction to bring your Budweiser, Jack Daniels, or Cutty Sark with you to the feast in the Temple? (Deut. 14:24-26) [RETURN]

2-11. Miraculous signs are events which violate or unnaturally manipulate God’s established natural laws in order to authenticate the men sent by Him, or by which men prove that the cause they are pleading is God's. [RETURN]

2-12b. Yeshua will make K'far-Nachum (Nahum's village), or Capernaum, the “headquarters” of His later ministry. K'far-Nachum was Shim`on Kefa’s (Simon Peter’s) home town, and one particular home there has been identified as his since the first century. The village is also known as Tell Hum, Khirbet Karazeh, Bethsaida, Capharnaum, Chorazin, Kefar Nahum, Kafarnaum, Kefar Tanhum, Talhum, and Tanhum. There are some very nice pictures here. [RETURN]

2-12b. Catholic, Assyrian, Eastern Orthodox, and Oriental Orthodox, as well as some Anglicans and Lutherans, believe in “the perpetual virginity of Mary”, as did the Protestant leaders Martin Luther, Huldrych Zwingli, and John Wesley. This doctrine holds that Miryam remained a virgin her entire life, until she was taken alive bodily into heaven (the Assumption of Mary). The Good News as recorded by Mattityahu (Matt. 13:55-56) and Markus (Mark 6:3) specifically name four brothers — Ya`akov (James), Yosef (Joseph), Shim`on (Simon), and Y'hudah (Jude), and say that He also had sisters, whom tradition name as Salome, Miryam, and Anna. According to tradition, Ya`akov eventually rose to leadership over the entire Messianic Community in Jerusalem, becoming known as “James the Just”, and Y'hudah became an active missionary. The “New Testament” letters “James” and “Jude” (see Jude 1) are attributed to them. [RETURN]

2-13. There are three “Pilgrimage Festivals” in the Torah, during which every able-bodied Israelite man is required to appear before ADONAI in the Temple: Pesach (Passover), Shavuot (the Feast of Weeks), and Sukkot (the Festival of Booths). “Three times a year all your men are to appear in the presence of ADONAI your God in the place which He will choose — at the festival of matzah, at the festival of Shavu'ot, and at the festival of Sukkot. They are not to show up before ADONAI empty-handed” (Deuteronomy 16:16). When the Temple is rebuilt, they will again become mandatory for all Israel, and during the Kingdom Era they will also be mandatory for Gentiles, especially Sukkot (Zech. 14:16-19). [RETURN]

2-14. The Torah required that everyone who came to the Temple bring a sacrifice with them. All the sacrificial animals they brought had to be carefully examined for blemishes by the priests. Since the priests made a healthy profit from selling their own animals, no animal brought into the Temple from outside was ever found acceptable. Additionally, only the Temple Shekel was acceptable as an offering because all the Greek and Roman coins had images of rulers or “gods” on them in violation of Torah’s prohibition against any carved image (Exodus 20:4). So for a hefty percentage fee, secular coins could be exchanged for the Temple Shekel which, obviously, could be obtained only from the money-changers, who were either priests themselves or paid the priests a significant “commission.” All-in-all the priesthood had a very profitable scam running.

2-15a. It does not seem to me that such a hastily-constructed whip or scourge made from cords or rope would be capable of inflicting any severe damage. But it would be incredibly humiliating and would sting considerably. [RETURN]

2-15b. Apparently, if we are truly to follow His example, Yeshua does not expect us to be pacifists to the point of being pushed around. We need to be strong and stand up, physically when necessary, for our strong beliefs and the cause of righteousness. [RETURN]

2-17. Psalm 69:9. [RETURN]

2-24. The word “trusted” in verse 23 and “commit” in verse 24 are translated from the same Greek word, pisteuo (pisteuo). Apparently the people trusted in Yeshua, but He didn't trust them, because he knew what was in their innermost being (verse 25). [RETURN]


Chapter 3

Yeshua and Nakdimon

1There was a certain P'rush named Nakdimon, a ruler of the Y'hudim,[1] 2who came to Yeshua by night, and said to him, “Rabbi, we know that you are a teacher come from God, for no one can do these signs that you do, unless God is with him.”

3Yeshua answered him, “Most certainly, I tell you, unless a person is born again[3] he can’t see the Kingdom of God.”

4Nakdimon said to him, “How can a man be born when he is old? Can he enter a second time into his mother’s womb, and be born?”[4]

5Yeshua answered, “Most certainly I tell you, unless one is born of water and spirit, he can’t enter into the Kingdom of God! 6 That which is born of the flesh is flesh. That which is born of the Spirit is spirit. 7Don’t be surprised that I said to you, ‘You must be born anew.’ 8The wind[8] blows where it wants to, and you hear its sound, but don’t know where it comes from and where it is going. So is everyone who is born of the Spirit.”

9Nakdimon answered him, “How can these things be?”

10 Yeshua answered him, “Are you the teacher of Israel, and don’t understand these things? 11 Most certainly I tell you, we speak that which we know, and testify of that which we have seen, and you don’t receive our witness. 12If I told you earthly things and you don’t believe, how will you believe if I tell you heavenly things? 13Nobody has ascended into heaven except the One Who descended out of heaven — the Son of Man — Who is in heaven.[13] 14Just as Moshe lifted up the brass serpent in the wilderness, even so must the Son of Man be lifted up, 15so that whoever believes in Him should not die, but have eternal life. 16Because God loved[16] the world so much, He gave His only and unique Son, so that whoever believes in Him will not perish, but have eternal life. 17For God didn’t send His Son into the world to judge the world, but so that the world could be saved through Him. 18He who believes in him is not judged. He who doesn’t believe has been judged already, because he has not believed in the name of the one and only Son of God. 19This is the judgment, that the light has come into the world, and men loved the darkness rather than the light; for their works were evil. 20For everyone who does evil hates the light, and doesn’t come to the light, lest his works would be exposed. 21 But he who does the truth comes to the light, that his works may be revealed, that they have been done in God.”

Yochanan’s Testimony to His Talmidim

22Then Yeshua came with his talmidim into the land of Yehudah. He stayed there with them, and immersed. 23Yochanan also was immersing in Enon near Salim, because there was much water there. They came, and were immersed. 24For Yochanan was not yet thrown into prison. 25There arose therefore a questioning on the part of Yochanan’s talmidim with some Y'hudim about purification. 26They came to Yochanan, and said to him, “Rabbi, he who was with you beyond the Jordan, to whom you have testified, behold, the same immerses, and everyone is coming to him.”

27Yochanan answered, “A man can receive nothing, unless it has been given him from heaven. 28You yourselves testify that I said, ‘I am not the Mashiach,’ but, ‘I have been sent before him.’ 29He who has the bride is the bridegroom; but the friend of the bridegroom, who stands and hears him, rejoices greatly because of the bridegroom’s voice. This, my joy, therefore is made full. 30He must increase, but I must decrease. 31He who comes from above is above all. He who is from the Earth belongs to the Earth, and speaks of the Earth. He who comes from heaven is above all. 32What he has seen and heard, of that he testifies; and no one receives his witness. 33He who has received his witness has set his seal to this, that God is true. 34For he whom God has sent speaks the words of God; for God gives the Spirit without measure. 35The Father loves the Son, and has given all things into his hand. 36One who believes in the Son has eternal life, but one who disobeys[36] the Son won’t see life, but the wrath of God remains on him.”


Notes on Chapter 3

3-1. The title “ruler of the Y'hudim” may only have meant that Nakdimon was an extremely influential person, but I believe it is more likely that he was literally “a ruler of the Y'hudim,” a member of the Sanhedrin, which was the Supreme Court of Israel. Since all law in Israel (besides Roman law) was the Torah, then all authority in Israel resided in those who were charged with interpreting the Torah and passing judgment on the people in all aspects of their lives. [RETURN]

3-3. The word translated “again” here and in verse 3:7 is anoqen (anothen), which also means “from above” or “anew.” [RETURN]

3-4. Nakdimon was honestly confused by Yeshua’s statement. When a Goy (Gentile) converted to Judaism, he/she went through a process that involved forsaking all former religious beliefs, taking a Jewish name, agreeing to learn to live as a Jew, circumcision for men, and then the offering of a sacrifice in the Temple. There was also the ceremonial immersion of tevilah, explained in note 20 of chapter one. The person went down into the water of the mikvah as a Goy and came up out of the water “born again” as a Jew. From that moment for the rest of his/her life, the convert was considered as much Jewish as if he/she had been originally born of a Jewish mother and Jewish father. The person could never again be considered a Goy, because once one has been born, it is impossible to be unborn. Nakdimon did not understand how it was possible for him to be “born again” as a Jew, since he was already a Jew, even a leader of the Jews. [RETURN]

3-8. The same Greek word (pneuma, pneuma) means wind, breath, or spirit. [RETURN]


3-16. The word translated as “love” in the Greek version is agapao (agapao), defined in Thayer and Smith’s The NAS New Testament Greek Lexicon" (1999) as “to welcome, to entertain, to be fond of, to love dearly.” In reality, the meaning is much deeper than that; to “love” with this kind of love means to be absolutely committed to doing whatever is in the best interest of the person loved, regardless of the personal cost to you. It was in your best interest, not God’s, that He sent Yeshua, His only unique Son, to be the sacrifice that would redeem you — purchase you back and bring you home to the Father’s house — from HaSatan. It was in your best interest, certainly not Yeshua’s, that He agreed to this arrangement before He said “Let there be light!” — when your name was written in the Book of Life. [RETURN]

3-36. The same word (apeiqeo, apeitheo) can be translated “disobeys” or “disbelieves” in this context. True belief produces obedience. Anyone who truly believes the commandments of Torah are the word of God will obey them. Conversely, disobedience proves disbelief. Those who refuse to obey the commandments of Torah, by their actions prove their disbelief. [RETURN]


Text of the Word Messianic Bible below this line

Chapter 4

Yeshua and the Woman of Shomron

4,1 Therefore when the Lord knew that the Perushim had heard that Yeshua was making and immersing more talmidim than Yochanan 4,2 (although Yeshua himself didn’t immerse, but his talmidim), 4,3 he left Yehudah, and departed into the Galil. 4,4 He needed to pass through Samaria. 4,5 So he came to a city of Samaria, called Sychar, near the parcel of ground that Ya'akov gave to his son, Yosef. 4,6 Ya'akov’s well was there. Yeshua therefore, being tired from his journey, sat down by the well. It was about the sixth hour. 4,7 A woman of Samaria came to draw water. Yeshua said to her, “Give me a drink.” 4,8 For his talmidim had gone away into the city to buy food.

4,9 The Samaritan woman therefore said to him, “How is it that you, being a Jew, ask for a drink from me, a Samaritan woman?” (For Y’hudim have no dealings with Samaritans.)

4,10 Yeshua answered her, “If you knew the gift of God, and who it is who says to you, ‘Give me a drink,’ you would have asked him, and he would have given you living water.”

4,11 The woman said to him, “Sir, you have nothing to draw with, and the well is deep. From where then have you that living water? 4,12 Are you greater than our father, Ya'akov, who gave us the well, and drank of it himself, as did his children, and his livestock?”

4,13 Yeshua answered her, “Everyone who drinks of this water will thirst again, 4,14 but whoever drinks of the water that I will give him will never thirst again; but the water that I will give him will become in him a well of water springing up to eternal life.”

4,15 The woman said to him, “Sir, give me this water, so that I don’t get thirsty, neither come all the way here to draw.”

4,16 Yeshua said to her, “Go, call your husband, and come here.”

4,17 The woman answered, “I have no husband.”

Yeshua said to her, “You said well, ‘I have no husband,’ 4,18 for you have had five husbands; and he whom you now have is not your husband. This you have said truly.”

4,19 The woman said to him, “Sir, I perceive that you are a prophet. 4,20 Our fathers worshiped in this mountain, and you say that in Yerushalayim is the place where people ought to worship.”

4,21 Yeshua said to her, “Woman, believe me, the hour comes, when neither in this mountain, nor in Yerushalayim, will you worship the Father. 4,22 You worship that which you don’t know. We worship that which we know; for salvation is from the Y’hudim. 4,23 But the hour comes, and now is, when the true worshippers will worship the Father in spirit and truth, for the Father seeks such to be his worshippers. 4,24 God is spirit, and those who worship him must worship in spirit and truth.”

4,25 The woman said to him, “I know that Mashiach comes,” (he who is called Anointed One). “When he has come, he will declare to us all things.”

4,26 Yeshua said to her, “I am he, the one who speaks to you.”

Yeshua’s Talmidim Rejoin Him

4,27 At this, his talmidim came. They marveled that he was speaking with a woman; yet no one said, “What are you looking for?” or, “Why do you speak with her?” 4,28 So the woman left her water pot, and went away into the city, and said to the people, 4,29 “Come, see a man who told me everything that I did. Can this be the Mashiach?”

4,30 They went out of the city, and were coming to him. 4,31 In the meanwhile, the talmidim urged him, saying, “Rabbi, eat.”

4,32 But he said to them, “I have food to eat that you don’t know about.”

4,33 The talmidim therefore said one to another, “Has anyone brought him something to eat?”

4,34 Yeshua said to them, “My food is to do the will of him who sent me, and to accomplish his work. 4,35 Don’t you say, ‘There are yet four months until the harvest?’ Behold, I tell you, lift up your eyes, and look at the fields, that they are white for harvest already. 4,36 He who reaps receives wages, and gathers fruit to eternal life; that both he who sows and he who reaps may rejoice together. 4,37 For in this the saying is true, ‘One sows, and another reaps.’ 4,38 I sent you to reap that for which you haven’t labored. Others have labored, and you have entered into their labor.”

Many Believe in Shomron

4,39 From that city many of the Samaritans believed in him because of the word of the woman, who testified, “He told me everything that I did.” 4,40 So when the Samaritans came to him, they begged him to stay with them. He stayed there two days. 4,41 Many more believed because of his word. 4,42 They said to the woman, “Now we believe, not because of your speaking; for we have heard for ourselves, and know that this is indeed the Mashiach, the Savior of the world.”

4,43 After the two days he went out from there and went into the Galil. 4,44 For Yeshua himself testified that a prophet has no honor in his own country. 4,45 So when he came into the Galil, the Galileans received him, having seen all the things that he did in Yerushalayim at the feast, for they also went to the feast.

Yeshua’s Second Sign: A Royal Official’s Son Healed

 4,46 Yeshua came therefore again to Kanah of the Galil, where he made the water into wine. There was a certain nobleman whose son was sick at Capernaum. 4,47 When he heard that Yeshua had come out of Yehudah into the Galil, he went to him, and begged him that he would come down and heal his son, for he was at the point of death. 4,48 Yeshua therefore said to him, “Unless you see signs and wonders, you will in no way believe.”

4,49 The nobleman said to him, “Sir, come down before my child dies.” 4,50 Yeshua said to him, “Go your way. Your son lives.” The man believed the word that Yeshua spoke to him, and he went his way. 4,51 As he was now going down, his servants met him and reported, saying “Your child lives!” 4,52 So he inquired of them the hour when he began to get better. They said therefore to him, “Yesterday at the seventh hour, the fever left him.” 4,53 So the father knew that it was at that hour in which Yeshua said to him, “Your son lives.” He believed, as did his whole house. 4,54 This is again the second sign that Yeshua did, having come out of Yehudah into the Galil.


Notes on Chapter 4


4-6. noon [RETURN]

4-52 1:00 P. M. back to 4:52



Chapter 5

The Third Sign: The Healing at the Beit-Zata Mikvah

5,1 After these things, there was a Jewish festival, and Yeshua went up to Yerushalayim. 5,2 Now in Yerushalayim by the sheep gate, there is a pool, which is called in Hebrew, “Bethesda,” having five porches. 5,3 In these lay a great multitude of those who were sick, blind, lame, or paralyzed, waiting for the moving of the water; 5,4 for an angel of ADONAI went down at certain times into the pool, and stirred up the water. Whoever stepped in first after the stirring of the water was made whole of whatever disease he had. 5,5 A certain man was there, who had been sick for thirty-eight years. 5,6 When Yeshua saw him lying there, and knew that he had been sick for a long time, he asked him, “Do you want to be made well?”

5,7 The sick man answered him, “Sir, I have no one to put me into the pool when the water is stirred up, but while I’m coming, another steps down before me.”

5,8 Yeshua said to him, “Arise, take up your mat, and walk.”

5,9 Immediately, the man was made well, and took up his mat and walked.

Now it was the Sabbath on that day. 5,10So the Y'hudim said to him who was cured, “It is the Sabbath. It is not lawful for you to carry the mat.”

5,11 He answered them, “He who made me well, the same said to me, ‘Take up your mat, and walk.’ ”

5,12 Then they asked him, “Who is the man who said to you, ‘Take up your mat, and walk’ ?”

5,13 But he who was healed didn’t know who it was, for Yeshua had withdrawn, a crowd being in the place.

5,14 Afterward Yeshua found him in the temple, and said to him, “Behold, you are made well. Sin no more, so that nothing worse happens to you.”

5,15 The man went away, and told the Y'hudim that it was Yeshua who had made him well.

The Persecution by the Y'hudim Begins

5,16 For this cause the Y'hudim persecuted Yeshua, and sought to kill him, because he did these things on the Sabbath. 5,17 But Yeshua answered them, “My Father is still working, so I am working, too.” 5,18 For this cause therefore the Y'hudim sought all the more to kill him, because he not only broke the Sabbath, but also called God his own Father, making himself equal with God. 5,19 Yeshua therefore answered them, “Most certainly, I tell you, the Son can do nothing of himself, but what he sees the Father doing. For whatever things he does, these the Son also does likewise. 5,20 For the Father has affection for the Son, and shows him all things that he himself does. He will show him greater works than these, that you may marvel. 5,21 For as the Father raises the dead and gives them life, even so the Son also gives life to whom he desires. 5,22 For the Father judges no one, but he has given all judgment to the Son, 5,23 that all may honor the Son, even as they honor the Father. He who doesn’t honor the Son doesn’t honor the Father who sent him.

5,24 “Most certainly I tell you, he who hears my word, and believes him who sent me, has eternal life, and doesn’t come into judgment, but has passed out of death into life. 5,25 Most certainly, I tell you, the hour comes, and now is, when the dead will hear the Son of God’s voice; and those who hear will live. 5,26 For as the Father has life in himself, even so he gave to the Son also to have life in himself. 5,27 He also gave him authority to execute judgment, because he is a son of man. 5,28 Don’t marvel at this, for the hour comes, in which all that are in the tombs will hear his voice, 5,29 and will come out; those who have done good, to the resurrection of life; and those who have done evil, to the resurrection of judgment. 5,30 I can of myself do nothing. As I hear, I judge, and my judgment is righteous; because I don’t seek my own will, but the will of my Father who sent me.

5,31 “If I testify about myself, my witness is not valid. 5,32 It is another who testifies about me. I know that the testimony which he testifies about me is true. 5,33 You have sent to Yochanan, and he has testified to the truth. 5,34 But the testimony which I receive is not from man. However, I say these things that you may be saved. 5,35 He was the burning and shining lamp, and you were willing to rejoice for a while in his light. 5,36 But the testimony which I have is greater than that of Yochanan, for the works which the Father gave me to accomplish, the very works that I do, testify about me, that the Father has sent me. 5,37 The Father himself, who sent me, has testified about me. You have neither heard his voice at any time, nor seen his form. 5,38 You don’t have his word living in you; because you don’t believe him whom he sent.

5,39 “You search the Scriptures, because you think that in them you have eternal life; and these are they which testify about me. 5,40 Yet you will not come to me, that you may have life. 5,41 I don’t receive glory from men. 5,42 But I know you, that you don’t have God’s love in yourselves. 5,43 I have come in my Father’s name, and you don’t receive me. If another comes in his own name, you will receive him. 5,44 How can you believe, who receive glory from one another, and you don’t seek the glory that comes from the only God?

5,45 “Don’t think that I will accuse you to the Father. There is one who accuses you, even Moshe, on whom you have set your hope. 5,46 For if you believed Moshe, you would believe me; for he wrote about me. 5,47 But if you don’t believe his writings, how will you believe my words?”


Notes on Chapter 5



Chapter 6

6,1 After these things, Yeshua went away to the other side of the sea of Galilee, which is also called the Sea of Tiberias. 6,2 A great multitude followed him, because they saw his signs which he did on those who were sick. 6,3 Yeshua went up into the mountain, and he sat there with his talmidim. 6,4 Now the Passover, the Jewish festival, was at hand. 6,5 Yeshua therefore lifting up his eyes, and seeing that a great multitude was coming to him, said to Philip, “Where are we to buy bread, that these may eat?” 6,6 This he said to test him, for he himself knew what he would do.

6,7 Philip answered him, “Two hundred denarii worth of bread is not sufficient for them, that everyone of them may receive a little.”

6,8 One of his talmidim, Andrew, Simon Peter’s brother, said to him, 6,9 “There is a boy here who has five barley loaves and two fish, but what are these among so many?”

6,10 Yeshua said, “Have the people sit down.” Now there was much grass in that place. So the men sat down, in number about five thousand. 6,11 Yeshua took the loaves; and having given thanks, he distributed to the talmidim, and the talmidim to those who were sitting down; likewise also of the fish as much as they desired. 6,12 When they were filled, he said to his talmidim, “Gather up the broken pieces which are left over, that nothing be lost.” 6,13 So they gathered them up, and filled twelve baskets with broken pieces from the five barley loaves, which were left over by those who had eaten. 6,14 When therefore the people saw the sign which Yeshua did, they said, “This is truly the Prophet who comes into the world.” 6,15 Yeshua therefore, perceiving that they were about to come and take him by force, to make him king, withdrew again to the mountain by himself.

6,16 When evening came, his talmidim went down to the sea, 6,17 and they entered into the boat, and were going over the sea to Capernaum. It was now dark, and Yeshua had not come to them. 6,18 The sea was tossed by a great wind blowing. 6,19 When therefore they had rowed about twenty-five or thirty stadia, they saw Yeshua walking on the sea,* and drawing near to the boat; and they were afraid. 6,20 But he said to them, “It is I. Don’t be afraid.” 6,21 They were willing therefore to receive him into the boat. Immediately the boat was at the land where they were going.

6,22 On the next day, the multitude that stood on the other side of the sea saw that there was no other boat there, except the one in which his talmidim had embarked, and that Yeshua hadn’t entered with his talmidim into the boat, but his talmidim had gone away alone. 6,23 However boats from Tiberias came near to the place where they ate the bread after the Lord had given thanks. 6,24 When the multitude therefore saw that Yeshua wasn’t there, nor his talmidim, they themselves got into the boats, and came to Capernaum, seeking Yeshua. 6,25 When they found him on the other side of the sea, they asked him, “Rabbi, when did you come here?”

6,26 Yeshua answered them, “Most certainly I tell you, you seek me, not because you saw signs, but because you ate of the loaves, and were filled. 6,27 Don’t work for the food which perishes, but for the food which remains to eternal life, which the Son of Man will give to you. For God the Father has sealed him.”

6,28 They said therefore to him, “What must we do, that we may work the works of God?”

6,29 Yeshua answered them, “This is the work of God, that you believe in him whom he has sent.”

6,30 They said therefore to him, “What then do you do for a sign, that we may see, and believe you? What work do you do? 6,31 Our fathers ate the manna in the wilderness. As it is written, ‘He gave them bread out of heaven to eat.’”*

6,32 Yeshua therefore said to them, “Most certainly, I tell you, it wasn’t Moshe who gave you the bread out of heaven, but my Father gives you the true bread out of heaven. 6,33 For the bread of God is that which comes down out of heaven, and gives life to the world.”

6,34 They said therefore to him, “Lord, always give us this bread.”

6,35 Yeshua said to them, “I am the bread of life. He who comes to me will not be hungry, and he who believes in me will never be thirsty. 6,36 But I told you that you have seen me, and yet you don’t believe. 6,37 All those who the Father gives me will come to me. Him who comes to me I will in no way throw out. 6,38 For I have come down from heaven, not to do my own will, but the will of him who sent me. 6,39 This is the will of my Father who sent me, that of all he has given to me I should lose nothing, but should raise him up at the last day. 6,40 This is the will of the one who sent me, that everyone who sees the Son, and believes in him, should have eternal life; and I will raise him up at the last day.”

6,41 The Y'hudim therefore murmured concerning him, because he said, “I am the bread which came down out of heaven.” 6,42 They said, “Isn’t this Yeshua, the son of Yosef, whose father and mother we know? How then does he say, ‘I have come down out of heaven?’”

6,43 Therefore Yeshua answered them, “Don’t murmur among yourselves. 6,44 No one can come to me unless the Father who sent me draws him, and I will raise him up in the last day. 6,45 It is written in the Prophets, ‘They will all be taught by God.’* Therefore everyone who hears from the Father, and has learned, comes to me. 6,46 Not that anyone has seen the Father, except he who is from God. He has seen the Father. 6,47 Most certainly, I tell you, he who believes in me has eternal life. 6,48 I am the bread of life. 6,49 Your fathers ate the manna in the wilderness, and they died. 6,50 This is the bread which comes down out of heaven, that anyone may eat of it and not die. 6,51 I am the living bread which came down out of heaven. If anyone eats of this bread, he will live forever. Yes, the bread which I will give for the life of the world is my flesh.”

6,52 The Y'hudim therefore contended with one another, saying, “How can this man give us his flesh to eat?”

6,53 Yeshua therefore said to them, “Most certainly I tell you, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood, you don’t have life in yourselves. 6,54 He who eats my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up at the last day. 6,55 For my flesh is food indeed, and my blood is drink indeed. 6,56 He who eats my flesh and drinks my blood lives in me, and I in him. 6,57 As the living Father sent me, and I live because of the Father; so he who feeds on me, he will also live because of me. 6,58 This is the bread which came down out of heaven—not as our fathers ate the manna, and died. He who eats this bread will live forever.” 6,59 He said these things in the synagogue, as he taught in Capernaum.

6,60 Therefore many of his talmidim, when they heard this, said, “This is a hard saying! Who can listen to it?”

6,61 But Yeshua knowing in himself that his talmidim murmured at this, said to them, “Does this cause you to stumble? 6,62 Then what if you would see the Son of Man ascending to where he was before? 6,63 It is the spirit who gives life. The flesh profits nothing. The words that I speak to you are spirit, and are life. 6,64 But there are some of you who don’t believe.” For Yeshua knew from the beginning who they were who didn’t believe, and who it was who would betray him. 6,65 He said, “For this cause have I said to you that no one can come to me, unless it is given to him by my Father.”

6,66 At this, many of his talmidim went back, and walked no more with him. 6,67 Yeshua said therefore to the twelve, “You don’t also want to go away, do you?”

6,68 Simon Peter answered him, “Lord, to whom would we go? You have the words of eternal life. 6,69 We have come to believe and know that you are the Mashiach, the Son of the living God.”

6,70 Yeshua answered them, “Didn’t I choose you, the twelve, and one of you is a devil?” 6,71 Now he spoke of Y'hudah, the son of Simon Iscariot, for it was he who would betray him, being one of the twelve.


Notes on Chapter 6


6-19a. 25 to 30 stadia is about 5 to 6 kilometers or about 3 to 4 miles back to 6:19

6-19b see Job 9:8 back to 6:19

6-20. or, I AMback to 6:20

6-31a. Greek and Hebrew use the same word for “heaven”, “the heavens”, “the sky”, and “the air”.back to 6:31

6-31b. Exodus 16:4; Nehemiah 9:15; Psalm 78:24-25 back to 6:31

6-45. Isaiah 54:13 back to 6:45



Chapter 7

1Afterwards, Yeshua was traveling around the Galil, carefully avoiding Y'hudah, because the Y'hudim wanted to kill Him. 2Since the Festival of Sukkot was at coming up soon, 3His brothers said to Him, “Leave here, and up to Y'hudah, so your disciples can see you perform some miracles; 4no one who wants to become famous works in secret. If you really do these things, show yourself to the world.” 5His brothers spoke this way to Him because they didn’t believe in Him.)

6Yeshua said to them, “My time has not yet come, but for you, any time is right. 7The world can’t hate you, but it does hate Me, because I tell it about its wicked acts. 8You go on up to the Festival. I’m not going up to the Festival yet, because is isn’t yet My time.”

9Having said this to them, he stayed in the Galil. 10But after His brothers had gone up to the Festival, then He went up too, but privately, not publicly. 11The Y'hudim were looking for Him at the Festival, asking, “Where is hH?” 12There was a lof of murmuring about him among the crowds. Some were saying, “He’s a good man.” Others were saying, “Not really; He’s deceiving the masses.” 13But no would speak openly about Him for for fear of the Y'hudim.

14When it was about halfway through the Festival, Yeshua went up into the Temple and was teaching. 15The Y'hudim were surprised. “How does this man know so much without having ever been educated?” they were asking.

16So Yeshua answered them, “My teaching is not Mine, but rather His who sent Me. 17If anyone wants to do His will, he will know whether the teaching is from God, or if I am speaking on My own. 18The one who speaks on his own is seeking his own his own glory, but the One who seeks only the glory the One who sent Him speaks truly, and there is no deceit in Him. 19Didn’t Moshe give you the Torah, and yet none of you keeps the Torah? So why are you intent on killing Me?”

20“You’re demon possessed!” the crowd said. “Who wants to kill you?”

21Yeshua answered them, “I did one thing, and you're all amazed at it. 22Moshe has given you b'rit-milah — not that it came from Moshe, but from the Patriarchs — and you do a boy’s b'rit-milah on Shabbat. 23If a boy receives b'rit-milah on b'rit-milah Shabbat so the Torah of Moshe won’t be broken, why are you angry with me because I made a man completely healthy on Shabbat? 24Don’t judge by appearance, but judge righteously.”

25Therefore some of them from Yerushalayim said, “Isn’t this the man they’re out to kill? 26Here He is, speaking out in the open, and they say nothing to him. Can it be that the rulers have determined that this is actually the Mashiach? 27But we know where this man comes from. When Mashiach comes, no one will know where he comes from.”

28So Yeshua continued teaching in the Temple, and cried out, “You know Me, and you know know where I am from. I haven’t come on My own. The One Who sent Me is Truth, but you don’t know Him! 29I know Him, because I have come from Him; He sent Me!”

30Then they tried to arrest Him, but nobody could lay a hand on Him, because it was not yet His time. 31But many of those in the crowd believed in Him. They said, “Surely when Mashiach comes, he won’t do any more powerful signs than the ones this man has done, will he?”

32The Perushim heard the crowd murmuring these things about Him, and the Cohenim Gadolim and the Perushim sent some of the Temple Guard to arrest Him.

33Then Yeshua said, “I will only be with you a little while longer, then I will go to Him Who sent Me. 34Then you will look for Me, but you won’t find Me; where I am, you can’t come.”

35The Y'hudim said among themselves, “Where will this man go that we won’t find Him? Will He go to the Diaspora among the Greeks, and teach the Greeks? 36What did He mean when He said, ‘You will seek Me, and won’t find Me; and where I am, you can’t come’”?

37On the last day of the Festival, Hoshana Rabbah, Yeshua stood and cried out, “If anyone is thirsty, let Him come to Me and drink! 38Anyone who believes in Me, as the Tanakh has said, from within him will flow rivers of living water.”[38] 39(But He said this about the Ruach HaKodesh, Whom those who believed in Him were to receive later — Ruach HaKodesh had not yet been given, because Yeshua had not yet been glorified.)

40When they heard these words, many in the crowd said, “Surely this is the Prophet.”[40] 41Others said, “This is HaMashiach.” But some said, “How can Mashiach come from the Galil? 42Doesn’t the Tanakh say that Mashiach comes from the descendants of David, and from Beit-Lechem, the village where David lived?” 43So there was a great disagreement between those in the crowd over Him. 44Some of them wanted Him arrested, but no one laid a hand on Him. 45The Temple Guards went to the Cohenim Gadolim and the Perushim, who asked them, “Why didn’t you arrest Him?”

46The guards answered, “No man has ever spoken like this man speaks!”

47The Perushim answered them, “You haven’t actually been taken in by this man, have you? 48Have any of the authorities believed in Him, or any of the Perushim? 49These accursed `am-ha'aretz[49] don’t know anything about the Torah!”

50Nakdimon (the man who came to Him [Yeshua] by night, who was one of them) said to them, 51“Does our Torah judge a man without first hearing from him personally and knowing what he’s doing?”

52They answered him, “Are you from the Galil, too?[52], Search the Tanakh, and you will see that no prophet has ever come from the Galil.”

53Then they all left and everyone went home.


Notes on Chapter 7



7-38. Hoshana Rabbah. The seventh day of the Jewish holiday of Sukkot, 21st day of Tishrei, is known as Hoshana Rabbah (Aramaic: הוֹשַׁעְנָא רַבָּא, "Great Hoshana/Supplication"). This day is marked by a special synagogue service, the Hoshana Rabbah, in which seven circuits are made by the worshippers with their lulav and etrog, while the congregation recites Hoshanot. It is customary for the scrolls of the Torah to be removed from the ark during this procession. In a few communities a shofar is sounded after each circuit. (Source: Wikipedia)

Throughout the seven days of Sukkot, kohenim had been carrying water from the Pool of Siloam in golden pitchers to be poured out at the base of the altar by the Kohen HaGadol (High Priest), signifying prayers for rain. It also signified the outpouring of Ruach HaKodesh on the people of Israel. The practice was derived from Isaiah 12:3: “Then you will joyfully draw water from the springs of salvation.” On the last day of Sukkot, the water-pouring ceremony was accompanied by kohenim blowing silver trumpets and Levites singing special Psalms, while the people waive their lulavs and chanted the Hallel (Psalms 113-118). In the closing verses of the Hallel are the words:

Please, ADONAI! Save us! [Hebrew, Hoshia‘ na, Hosannah]
   Please, ADONAI! Rescue us!
Blessed is he who comes in the name of ADONAI.
   We bless you from the house of ADONAI.

Rosh Hashanah was understood to be the absolute final chance to have one’s sins for the year forgiven. On Rosh Hashanah one asks to be “inscribed in the Book of Life [Rev. 20:12], and on Yom Kippur one hopes to have that inscription “sealed”; yet in Jewish tradition there remained opportunity for forgiveness up to Hoshana Rabbah. [Stern, David H. Jewish New Testament Commentary. Clarksville, MD: Jewish New Testament Publications, Inc., 1996, p. 179]

Yeshua’s offer of “living water” was in all probability made during the water-pouring ceremony, while the crowd was chanting “Barukh habah b'shem ADONAI. Blessed is he who comes in the name of ADONAI.” [See Luke 13:35.] Those hearing Him would have clearly understood that He was offering both salvation and the outpouring of Ruach HaKodesh. [RETURN]

7-40. The Prophet like Moses (Acts 3:22). [RETURN]



7-42a. 2 Samuel 7:12 back to 7:42

7-42b Micah 5:2 back to 7:42



7-49. `am-ha'aretz; literally, people of the earth. Used here as derogatory term to signify “uneducated peasants, ignorant hayseeds, stupid hicks.” [RETURN]

7-52. The implication was that they felt Nakdimon was talking as ignorantly as the `am-ha'aretz from the Galil.  But apparently Isaiah had hinted that a prophet would, in fact, one day come from Galilee. See Isaiah 9:1, which is quoted in Mattityahu 4:13-16. [RETURN]



Chapter 8

8,1 but Yeshua went to the Mount of Olives. 8,2 Now very early in the morning, he came again into the temple, and all the people came to him. He sat down, and taught them. 8,3 The Sofrim and the Perushim brought a woman taken in adultery. Having set her in the midst, 8,4 they told him, “Rabbi, we found this woman in adultery, in the very act. 8,5 Now in our Torah, Moshe commanded us to stone such.* What then do you say about her?” 8,6 They said this testing him, that they might have something to accuse him of.

But Yeshua stooped down, and wrote on the ground with his finger. 8,7 But when they continued asking him, he looked up and said to them, “He who is without sin among you, let him throw the first stone at her.” 8,8 Again he stooped down, and with his finger wrote on the ground.

8,9 They, when they heard it, being convicted by their conscience, went out one by one, beginning from the oldest, even to the last. Yeshua was left alone with the woman where she was, in the middle. 8,10 Yeshua, standing up, saw her and said, “Woman, where are your accusers? Did no one condemn you?”

8,11 She said, “No one, Lord.”

Yeshua said, “Neither do I condemn you. Go your way. From now on, sin no more.”

8,12 Again, therefore, Yeshua spoke to them, saying, “I am the light of the world.* He who follows me will not walk in the darkness, but will have the light of life.”

8,13 The Perushim therefore said to him, “You testify about yourself. Your testimony is not valid.”

8,14 Yeshua answered them, “Even if I testify about myself, my testimony is true, for I know where I came from, and where I am going; but you don’t know where I came from, or where I am going. 8,15 You judge according to the flesh. I judge no one. 8,16 Even if I do judge, my judgment is true, for I am not alone, but I am with the Father who sent me. 8,17 It’s also written in your Torah that the testimony of two people is valid.* 8,18 I am one who testifies about myself, and the Father who sent me testifies about me.”

8,19 They said therefore to him, “Where is your Father?”

Yeshua answered, “You know neither me, nor my Father. If you knew me, you would know my Father also.” 8,20 Yeshua spoke these words in the treasury, as he taught in the temple. Yet no one arrested him, because his hour had not yet come. 8,21 Yeshua said therefore again to them, “I am going away, and you will seek me, and you will die in your sins. Where I go, you can’t come.”

8,22 The Y'hudim therefore said, “Will he kill himself, that he says, ‘Where I am going, you can’t come?’ ”

8,23 He said to them, “You are from beneath. I am from above. You are of this world. I am not of this world. 8,24 I said therefore to you that you will die in your sins; for unless you believe that I am he, you will die in your sins.”

8,25 They said therefore to him, “Who are you?”

Yeshua said to them, “Just what I have been saying to you from the beginning. 8,26 I have many things to speak and to judge concerning you. However he who sent me is true; and the things which I heard from him, these I say to the world.”

8,27 They didn’t understand that he spoke to them about the Father. 8,28 Yeshua therefore said to them, “When you have lifted up the Son of Man, then you will know that I am he, and I do nothing of myself, but as my Father taught me, I say these things. 8,29 He who sent me is with me. The Father hasn’t left me alone, for I always do the things that are pleasing to him.”

8,30 As he spoke these things, many believed in him. 8,31 Yeshua therefore said to those Y'hudim who had believed him, “If you remain in my word, then you are truly my talmidim. 8,32 You will know the truth, and the truth will make you free.” *

8,33 They answered him, “We are Avraham’s seed, and have never been in bondage to anyone[33]. How do you say, ‘You will be made free?’ ”

8,34 Yeshua answered them, “Most certainly I tell you, everyone who commits sin is the bondservant of sin. 8,35 A bondservant doesn’t live in the house forever. A son remains forever. 8,36 If therefore the Son makes you free, you will be free indeed. 8,37 I know that you are Avraham’s seed, yet you seek to kill me, because my word finds no place in you. 8,38 I say the things which I have seen with my Father; and you also do the things which you have seen with your father.”

8,39 They answered him, “Our father is Avraham.”

Yeshua said to them, “If you were Avraham’s children, you would do the works of Avraham. 8,40 But now you seek to kill me, a man who has told you the truth, which I heard from God. Avraham didn’t do this. 8,41 You do the works of your father.”

They said to him, “We were not born of sexual immorality. We have one Father, God.”

8,42 Therefore Yeshua said to them, “If God were your father, you would love me, for I came out and have come from God. For I haven’t come of myself, but he sent me. 8,43 Why don’t you understand my speech? Because you can’t hear my word. 8,44 You are of your father, the devil, and you want to do the desires of your father. He was a murderer from the beginning, and doesn’t stand in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he speaks a lie, he speaks on his own; for he is a liar, and its father. 8,45 But because I tell the truth, you don’t believe me. 8,46 Which of you convicts me of sin? If I tell the truth, why do you not believe me? 8,47 He who is of God hears the words of God. For this cause you don’t hear, because you are not of God.”

8,48 Then the Y'hudim answered him, “Don’t we say well that you are a Samaritan, and have a demon?”

8,49 Yeshua answered, “I don’t have a demon, but I honor my Father, and you dishonor me. 8,50 But I don’t seek my own glory. There is one who seeks and judges. 8,51 Most certainly, I tell you, if a person keeps my word, he will never see death.”

8,52 Then the Y'hudim said to him, “Now we know that you have a demon. Avraham died, and the prophets; and you say, ‘If a man keeps my word, he will never taste of death.’ 8,53 Are you greater than our father, Avraham, who died? The prophets died. Who do you make yourself out to be?”

8,54 Yeshua answered, “If I glorify myself, my glory is nothing. It is my Father who glorifies me, of whom you say that he is our God. 8,55 You have not known him, but I know him. If I said, ‘I don’t know him,’ I would be like you, a liar. But I know him, and keep his word. 8,56 Your father Avraham rejoiced to see my day. He saw it, and was glad.”

8,57 The Y'hudim therefore said to him, “You are not yet fifty years old, and have you seen Avraham?”

8,58 Yeshua said to them, “Most certainly, I tell you, before Avraham came into existence, I AM.

8,59 Therefore they took up stones to throw at him, but Yeshua was hidden, and went out of the temple, having gone through the midst of them, and so passed by.


Notes on Chapter 8


8-5. Leviticus 20:10; Deuteronomy 22:22 back to 8:5

8-12. Isaiah 60:1 back to 8:12

8-17. Deuteronomy 17:6; 19:15 back to 8:17

8-24. or, I AM back to 8:24

8-32. Psalm 119:45 back to 8:32

8-33. I guess they must have forgotten about Egypt.

8-58. or, I am back to 8:58



Chapter 9

9,1 As he passed by, he saw a man blind from birth. 9,2 His talmidim asked him, “Rabbi, who sinned, this man or his parents, that he was born blind?”

9,3 Yeshua answered, “Neither did this man sin, nor his parents; but, that the works of God might be revealed in him. 9,4 I must work the works of him who sent me, while it is day. The night is coming, when no one can work. 9,5 While I am in the world, I am the light of the world.” 9,6 When he had said this, he spat on the ground, made mud with the saliva, anointed the blind man’s eyes with the mud, 9,7 and said to him, “Go, wash in the pool of Siloam” (which means “Sent”). So he went away, washed, and came back seeing. 9,8 The neighbors therefore, and those who saw that he was blind before, said, “Isn’t this he who sat and begged?” 9,9 Others were saying, “It is he.” Still others were saying, “He looks like him.”

He said, “I am he.” 9,10 They therefore were asking him, “How were your eyes opened?”

9,11 He answered, “A man called Yeshua made mud, anointed my eyes, and said to me, ‘Go to the pool of Siloam, and wash.’ So I went away and washed, and I received sight.”

9,12 Then they asked him, “Where is he?”

He said, “I don’t know.”

9,13 They brought him who had been blind to the Perushim. 9,14 It was a Sabbath when Yeshua made the mud and opened his eyes. 9,15 Again therefore the Perushim also asked him how he received his sight. He said to them, “He put mud on my eyes, I washed, and I see.”

9,16 Some therefore of the Perushim said, “This man is not from God, because he doesn’t keep the Sabbath.” Others said, “How can a man who is a sinner do such signs?” There was division among them. 9,17 Therefore they asked the blind man again, “What do you say about him, because he opened your eyes?”

He said, “He is a prophet.”

9,18 The Y'hudim therefore did not believe concerning him, that he had been blind, and had received his sight, until they called the parents of him who had received his sight, 9,19 and asked them, “Is this your son, who you say was born blind? How then does he now see?”

9,20 His parents answered them, “We know that this is our son, and that he was born blind; 9,21 but how he now sees, we don’t know; or who opened his eyes, we don’t know. He is of age. Ask him. He will speak for himself.” 9,22 His parents said these things because they feared the Y'hudim; for the Y'hudim had already agreed that if any man would confess him as Mashiach, he would be put out of the synagogue. 9,23 Therefore his parents said, “He is of age. Ask him.”

9,24 So they called the man who was blind a second time, and said to him, “Give glory to God. We know that this man is a sinner.”

9,25 He therefore answered, “I don’t know if he is a sinner. One thing I do know: that though I was blind, now I see.”

9,26 They said to him again, “What did he do to you? How did he open your eyes?”

9,27 He answered them, “I told you already, and you didn’t listen. Why do you want to hear it again? You don’t also want to become his talmidim, do you?”

9,28 They insulted him and said, “You are his talmid, but we are talmidim of Moshe. 9,29 We know that God has spoken to Moshe. But as for this man, we don’t know where he comes from.”

9,30 The man answered them, “How amazing! You don’t know where he comes from, yet he opened my eyes. 9,31 We know that God doesn’t listen to sinners, but if anyone is a worshipper of God, and does his will, he listens to him.* 9,32 Since the world began it has never been heard of that anyone opened the eyes of someone born blind. 9,33 If this man were not from God, he could do nothing.”

9,34 They answered him, “You were altogether born in sins, and do you teach us?” They threw him out.

9,35 Yeshua heard that they had thrown him out, and finding him, he said, “Do you believe in the Son of God?”

9,36 He answered, “Who is he, Lord, that I may believe in him?”

9,37 Yeshua said to him, “You have both seen him, and it is he who speaks with you.”

9,38 He said, “Lord, I believe!” and he worshiped him.

9,39 Yeshua said, “I came into this world for judgment, that those who don’t see may see; and that those who see may become blind.”

9,40 Those of the Perushim who were with him heard these things, and said to him, “Are we also blind?”

9,41 Yeshua said to them, “If you were blind, you would have no sin; but now you say, ‘We see.’ Therefore your sin remains.


Notes on Chapter 9

9-31. Psalm 66:18, Proverbs 15:29; 28:9 back to 9:31


Chapter 10

10,1 “Most certainly, I tell you, one who doesn’t enter by the door into the sheep fold, but climbs up some other way, the same is a thief and a robber. 10,2 But one who enters in by the door is the shepherd of the sheep. 10,3 The gatekeeper opens the gate for him, and the sheep listen to his voice. He calls his own sheep by name, and leads them out. 10,4 Whenever he brings out his own sheep, he goes before them, and the sheep follow him, for they know his voice. 10,5 They will by no means follow a stranger, but will flee from him; for they don’t know the voice of strangers.” 10,6 Yeshua spoke this parable to them, but they didn’t understand what he was telling them.

10,7 Yeshua therefore said to them again, “Most certainly, I tell you, I am the sheep’s door. 10,8 All who came before me are thieves and robbers, but the sheep didn’t listen to them. 10,9 I am the door. If anyone enters in by me, he will be saved, and will go in and go out, and will find pasture. 10,10 The thief only comes to steal, kill, and destroy. I came that they may have life, and may have it abundantly. 10,11 I am the good shepherd.* The good shepherd lays down his life for the sheep. 10,12 He who is a hired hand, and not a shepherd, who doesn’t own the sheep, sees the wolf coming, leaves the sheep, and flees. The wolf snatches the sheep, and scatters them. 10,13 The hired hand flees because he is a hired hand, and doesn’t care for the sheep. 10,14 I am the good shepherd. I know my own, and I’m known by my own; 10,15 even as the Father knows me, and I know the Father. I lay down my life for the sheep. 10,16 I have other sheep, which are not of this fold.* I must bring them also, and they will hear my voice. They will become one flock with one shepherd. 10,17 Therefore the Father loves me, because I lay down my life,* that I may take it again. 10,18 No one takes it away from me, but I lay it down by myself. I have power to lay it down, and I have power to take it again. I received this commandment from my Father.”

10,19 Therefore a division arose again among the Y'hudim because of these words. 10,20 Many of them said, “He has a demon, and is insane! Why do you listen to him?” 10,21 Others said, “These are not the sayings of one possessed by a demon. It isn’t possible for a demon to open the eyes of the blind, is it?”*

10,22 It was the Feast of Hanukkah at Yerushalayim. 10,23 It was winter, and Yeshua was walking in the temple, in Shlomo’s porch. 10,24 The Y'hudim therefore came around him and said to him, “How long will you hold us in suspense? If you are the Mashiach, tell us plainly.”

10,25 Yeshua answered them, “I told you, and you don’t believe. The works that I do in my Father’s name, these testify about me. 10,26 But you don’t believe, because you are not of my sheep, as I told you. 10,27 My sheep hear my voice, and I know them, and they follow me. 10,28 I give eternal life to them. They will never perish, and no one will snatch them out of my hand. 10,29 My Father, who has given them to me, is greater than all. No one is able to snatch them out of my Father’s hand. 10,30 I and the Father are one.”

10,31 Therefore the Y'hudim took up stones again to stone him. 10,32 Yeshua answered them, “I have shown you many good works from my Father. For which of those works do you stone me?”

10,33 The Y'hudim answered him, “We don’t stone you for a good work, but for blasphemy: because you, being a man, make yourself God.”

10,34 Yeshua answered them, “Isn’t it written in your law, ‘I said, you are gods?’* 10,35 If he called them gods, to whom the word of God came (and the Scripture can’t be broken), 10,36 do you say of him whom the Father sanctified and sent into the world, ‘You blaspheme,’ because I said, ‘I am the Son of God?’ 10,37 If I don’t do the works of my Father, don’t believe me. 10,38 But if I do them, though you don’t believe me, believe the works; that you may know and believe that the Father is in me, and I in the Father.”

10,39 They sought again to seize him, and he went out of their hand. 10,40 He went away again beyond the Jordan into the place where Yochanan was immersing at first, and there he stayed. 10,41 Many came to him. They said, “Yochanan indeed did no sign, but everything that Yochanan said about this man is true.” 10,42 Many believed in him there.


Notes on Chapter 10


10-11. Isaiah 40:11; Yechezk'el 34:11-12,15,22 back to 10:11

10-16. Isaiah 56:8 back to 10:16

10-17. Isaiah 53:7-8 back to 10:17

10-21. Exodus 4:11 back to 10:21

10-22. The “Feast of the Dedication” is the Greek name for “Hanukkah,” a celebration of the rededication of the Temple. back to 10:22

10-34. Psalm 82:6 back to 10:34


Chapter 11

11,1 Now a certain man was sick, Lazarus from Bethany, of the village of Miryam and her sister, Martha. 11,2 It was that Miryam who had anointed the Lord with ointment, and wiped his feet with her hair, whose brother, Lazarus, was sick. 11,3 The sisters therefore sent to him, saying, “Lord, behold, he for whom you have great affection is sick.” 11,4 But when Yeshua heard it, he said, “This sickness is not to death, but for the glory of God, that God’s Son may be glorified by it.” 11,5 Now Yeshua loved Martha, and her sister, and Lazarus. 11,6 When therefore he heard that he was sick, he stayed two days in the place where he was. 11,7 Then after this he said to the talmidim, “Let’s go into Yehudah again.”

11,8 The talmidim told him, “Rabbi, the Y'hudim were just trying to stone you, and are you going there again?”

11,9 Yeshua answered, “Aren’t there twelve hours of daylight? If a man walks in the day, he doesn’t stumble, because he sees the light of this world. 11,10 But if a man walks in the night, he stumbles, because the light isn’t in him.” 11,11 He said these things, and after that, he said to them, “Our friend, Lazarus, has fallen asleep, but I am going so that I may awake him out of sleep.”

11,12 The talmidim therefore said, “Lord, if he has fallen asleep, he will recover.”

11,13 Now Yeshua had spoken of his death, but they thought that he spoke of taking rest in sleep. 11,14 So Yeshua said to them plainly then, “Lazarus is dead. 11,15 I am glad for your sakes that I was not there, so that you may believe. Nevertheless, let’s go to him.”

11,16 Thomas therefore, who is called Didymus, said to his fellow talmidim, “Let’s go also, that we may die with him.”

11,17 So when Yeshua came, he found that he had been in the tomb four days already. 11,18 Now Bethany was near Yerushalayim, about fifteen stadia away. 11,19 Many of the Y'hudim had joined the women around Martha and Miryam, to console them concerning their brother. 11,20 Then when Martha heard that Yeshua was coming, she went and met him, but Miryam stayed in the house. 11,21 Therefore Martha said to Yeshua, “Lord, if you would have been here, my brother wouldn’t have died. 11,22 Even now I know that, whatever you ask of God, God will give you.” 11,23 Yeshua said to her, “Your brother will rise again.”

11,24 Martha said to him, “I know that he will rise again in the resurrection at the last day.”

11,25 Yeshua said to her, “I am the resurrection and the life. He who believes in me will still live, even if he dies. 11,26 Whoever lives and believes in me will never die. Do you believe this?”

11,27 She said to him, “Yes, Lord. I have come to believe that you are the Mashiach, God’s Son, he who comes into the world.”

11,28 When she had said this, she went away, and called Miryam, her sister, secretly, saying, “The Rabbi is here, and is calling you.”

11,29 When she heard this, she arose quickly, and went to him. 11,30 Now Yeshua had not yet come into the village, but was in the place where Martha met him. 11,31 Then the Y'hudim who were with her in the house, and were consoling her, when they saw Miryam, that she rose up quickly and went out, followed her, saying, “She is going to the tomb to weep there.” 11,32 Therefore when Miryam came to where Yeshua was, and saw him, she fell down at his feet, saying to him, “Lord, if you would have been here, my brother wouldn’t have died.”

11,33 When Yeshua therefore saw her weeping, and the Y'hudim weeping who came with her, he groaned in the spirit, and was troubled, 11,34 and said, “Where have you laid him?”

They told him, “Lord, come and see.”

11,35 Yeshua wept.

11,36 The Y'hudim therefore said, “See how much affection he had for him!” 11,37 Some of them said, “Couldn’t this man, who opened the eyes of him who was blind, have also kept this man from dying?”

11,38 Yeshua therefore, again groaning in himself, came to the tomb. Now it was a cave, and a stone lay against it. 11,39 Yeshua said, “Take away the stone.”

Martha, the sister of him who was dead, said to him, “Lord, by this time there is a stench, for he has been dead four days.”

11,40 Yeshua said to her, “Didn’t I tell you that if you believed, you would see God’s Shekinah?”

11,41 So they took away the stone from the place where the dead man was lying. Yeshua lifted up his eyes, and said, “Father, I thank you that you listened to me. 11,42 I know that you always listen to me, but because of the multitude that stands around I said this, that they may believe that you sent me.” 11,43 When he had said this, he cried with a loud voice, “Lazarus, come out!”

11,44 He who was dead came out, bound hand and foot with wrappings, and his face was wrapped around with a cloth.

Yeshua said to them, “Free him, and let him go.”

11,45 Therefore many of the Y'hudim, who came to Miryam and saw what Yeshua did, believed in him. 11,46 But some of them went away to the Perushim, and told them the things which Yeshua had done. 11,47 The Cohenim Gadolim therefore and the Perushim gathered a council, and said, “What are we doing? For this man does many signs. 11,48 If we leave him alone like this, everyone will believe in him, and the Romans will come and take away both our place and our nation.”

11,49 But a certain one of them, Caiaphas, being high priest that year, said to them, “You know nothing at all, 11,50 nor do you consider that it is advantageous for us that one man should die for the people, and that the whole nation not perish.” 11,51 Now he didn’t say this of himself, but being high priest that year, he prophesied that Yeshua would die for the nation, 11,52 and not for the nation only, but that he might also gather together into one the children of God who are scattered abroad. 11,53 So from that day forward they took counsel that they might put him to death. 11,54 Yeshua therefore walked no more openly among the Y'hudim, but departed from there into the country near the wilderness, to a city called Ephraim. He stayed there with his talmidim.

11,55 Now the Passover in Yehudah was at hand. Many went up from the country to Yerushalayim before the Passover, to purify themselves. 11,56 Then they sought for Yeshua and spoke one with another, as they stood in the temple, “What do you think—that he isn’t coming to the feast at all?” 11,57 Now the Cohenim Gadolim and the Perushim had commanded that if anyone knew where he was, he should report it, that they might seize him.


Notes on Chapter 11



11-16. “Didymus” means “Twin” back to 11:16

11-18. 15 stadia is about 2.8 kilometers or 1.7 miles back to 11:18

11-41. NU omits “from the place where the dead man was lying.” back to 11:41



Chapter 12

12,1 Then six days before the Passover, Yeshua came to Bethany, where Lazarus was, who had been dead, whom he raised from the dead. 12,2 So they made him a supper there. Martha served, but Lazarus was one of those who sat at the table with him. 12,3 Miryam, therefore, took a pound of ointment of pure nard, very precious, and anointed the feet of Yeshua, and wiped his feet with her hair. The house was filled with the fragrance of the ointment. 12,4 Then Y'hudah Iscariot, Simon’s son, one of his talmidim, who would betray him, said, 12,5 “Why wasn’t this ointment sold for three hundred denarii, and given to the poor?” 12,6 Now he said this, not because he cared for the poor, but because he was a thief, and having the money box, used to steal what was put into it. 12,7 But Yeshua said, “Leave her alone. She has kept this for the day of my burial. 12,8 For you always have the poor with you, but you don’t always have me.”

12,9 A large crowd therefore of the Y'hudim learned that he was there, and they came, not for Yeshua’s sake only, but that they might see Lazarus also, whom he had raised from the dead. 12,10 But the Cohenim Gadolim conspired to put Lazarus to death also, 12,11 because on account of him many of the Y'hudim went away and believed in Yeshua.

12,12 On the next day a great multitude had come to the feast. When they heard that Yeshua was coming to Yerushalayim, 12,13 they took the branches of the palm trees, and went out to meet him, and cried out, “Hosanna! Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord,* the King of Israel!”

12,14 Yeshua, having found a young donkey, sat on it. As it is written, 12,15 “Don’t be afraid, daughter of Zion. Behold, your King comes, sitting on a donkey’s colt.”* 12,16 His talmidim didn’t understand these things at first, but when Yeshua was glorified, then they remembered that these things were written about him, and that they had done these things to him. 12,17 The multitude therefore that was with him when he called Lazarus out of the tomb, and raised him from the dead, was testifying about it. 12,18 For this cause also the multitude went and met him, because they heard that he had done this sign. 12,19 The Perushim therefore said among themselves, “See how you accomplish nothing. Behold, the world has gone after him.”

12,20 Now there were certain Greeks among those that went up to worship at the feast. 12,21 These, therefore, came to Philip, who was from Bethsaida of the Galil, and asked him, saying, “Sir, we want to see Yeshua.” 12,22 Philip came and told Andrew, and in turn, Andrew came with Philip, and they told Yeshua. 12,23 Yeshua answered them, “The time has come for the Son of Man to be glorified. 12,24 Most certainly I tell you, unless a grain of wheat falls into the earth and dies, it remains by itself alone. But if it dies, it bears much fruit. 12,25 He who loves his life will lose it. He who hates his life in this world will keep it to eternal life. 12,26 If anyone serves me, let him follow me. Where I am, there will my servant also be. If anyone serves me, the Father will honor him.

12,27 “Now my soul is troubled. What shall I say? ‘Father, save me from this time?’ But for this cause I came to this time. 12,28 Father, glorify your name!”

Then there came a voice out of the sky, saying, “I have both glorified it, and will glorify it again.”

12,29 The multitude therefore, who stood by and heard it, said that it had thundered. Others said, “An angel has spoken to him.”

12,30 Yeshua answered, “This voice hasn’t come for my sake, but for your sakes. 12,31 Now is the judgment of this world. Now the prince of this world will be cast out. 12,32 And I, if I am lifted up from the earth, will draw all people to myself.” 12,33 But he said this, signifying by what kind of death he should die. 12,34 The multitude answered him, “We have heard out of the law that the Mashiach remains forever.* How do you say, ‘The Son of Man must be lifted up?’ Who is this Son of Man?”

12,35 Yeshua therefore said to them, “Yet a little while the light is with you. Walk while you have the light, that darkness doesn’t overtake you. He who walks in the darkness doesn’t know where he is going. 12,36 While you have the light, believe in the light, that you may become children of light.” Yeshua said these things, and he departed and hid himself from them. 12,37 But though he had done so many signs before them, yet they didn’t believe in him, 12,38 that the word of Isaiah the prophet might be fulfilled, which he spoke,

“Lord, who has believed our report?
To whom has the arm of ADONAI been revealed?”*

12,39 For this cause they couldn’t believe, for Isaiah said again,

12,40 “He has blinded their eyes and he hardened their heart,
lest they should see with their eyes,
and perceive with their heart,
and would turn,
and I would heal them.”*

12,41 Isaiah said these things when he saw his Shekinah, and spoke of him.* 12,42 Nevertheless even of the rulers many believed in him, but because of the Perushim they didn’t confess it, so that they wouldn’t be put out of the synagogue, 12,43 for they loved men’s praise more than God’s praise.

12,44 Yeshua cried out and said, “Whoever believes in me, believes not in me, but in him who sent me. 12,45 He who sees me sees him who sent me. 12,46 I have come as a light into the world, that whoever believes in me may not remain in the darkness. 12,47 If anyone listens to my sayings, and doesn’t believe, I don’t judge him. For I came not to judge the world, but to save the world. 12,48 He who rejects me, and doesn’t receive my sayings, has one who judges him. The word that I spoke, the same will judge him in the last day. 12,49 For I spoke not from myself, but the Father who sent me, he gave me a commandment, what I should say, and what I should speak. 12,50 I know that his commandment is eternal life. The things therefore which I speak, even as the Father has said to me, so I speak.”


Notes on Chapter 12



12-3. a Roman pound of 12 ounces, or about 340 grams back to 12:3

12-5. 300 denarii was about a year’s wages for an agricultural laborer. back to 12:5

12-13a. “Hosanna” means “save us” or “help us, we pray.” back to 12:13

12-13b. Psalm 118:25-26 back to 12:13

12-15. Zechariah 9:9 back to 12:15

12-34. Isaiah 9:7; Daniel 2:44 (but see also Isaiah 53:8) back to 12:34

12-38. Isaiah 53:1 back to 12:38

12-40. Isaiah 6:10 back to 12:40

12-41. Isaiah 6:1 back to 12:41


Chapter 13

13,1 Now before the feast of the Passover, Yeshua, knowing that his time had come that he would depart from this world to the Father, having loved his own who were in the world, he loved them to the end. 13,2 During supper, the devil having already put into the heart of Y'hudah Iscariot, Simon’s son, to betray him, 13,3 Yeshua, knowing that the Father had given all things into his hands, and that he came forth from God, and was going to God, 13,4 arose from supper, and laid aside his outer garments. He took a towel, and wrapped a towel around his waist. 13,5 Then he poured water into the basin, and began to wash the talmidim’ feet, and to wipe them with the towel that was wrapped around him. 13,6 Then he came to Simon Peter. He said to him, “Lord, do you wash my feet?”

13,7 Yeshua answered him, “You don’t know what I am doing now, but you will understand later.”

13,8 Peter said to him, “You will never wash my feet!”

Yeshua answered him, “If I don’t wash you, you have no part with me.”

13,9 Simon Peter said to him, “Lord, not my feet only, but also my hands and my head!”

13,10 Yeshua said to him, “Someone who has bathed only needs to have his feet washed, but is completely clean. You are clean, but not all of you.” 13,11 For he knew him who would betray him, therefore he said, “You are not all clean.” 13,12 So when he had washed their feet, put his outer garment back on, and sat down again, he said to them, “Do you know what I have done to you? 13,13 You call me, ‘Rabbi’ and ‘Lord.’ You say so correctly, for so I am. 13,14 If I then, the Lord and the Rabbi, have washed your feet, you also ought to wash one another’s feet. 13,15 For I have given you an example, that you also should do as I have done to you. 13,16 Most certainly I tell you, a servant is not greater than his lord, neither one who is sent greater than he who sent him. 13,17 If you know these things, blessed are you if you do them. 13,18 I don’t speak concerning all of you. I know whom I have chosen. But that the Scripture may be fulfilled, ‘He who eats bread with me has lifted up his heel against me.’* 13,19 From now on, I tell you before it happens, that when it happens, you may believe that I am he. 13,20 Most certainly I tell you, he who receives whomever I send, receives me; and he who receives me, receives him who sent me.”

13,21 When Yeshua had said this, he was troubled in spirit, and testified, “Most certainly I tell you that one of you will betray me.”

13,22 The talmidim looked at one another, perplexed about whom he spoke. 13,23 One of his talmidim, whom Yeshua loved, was at the table, leaning against Yeshua’s breast. 13,24 Simon Peter therefore beckoned to him, and said to him, “Tell us who it is of whom he speaks.”

13,25 He, leaning back, as he was, on Yeshua’s breast, asked him, “Lord, who is it?”

13,26 Yeshua therefore answered, “It is he to whom I will give this piece of bread when I have dipped it.” So when he had dipped the piece of bread, he gave it to Y'hudah, the son of Simon Iscariot. 13,27 After the piece of bread, then Satan entered into him.

Then Yeshua said to him, “What you do, do quickly.”

13,28 Now no man at the table knew why he said this to him. 13,29 For some thought, because Y'hudah had the money box, that Yeshua said to him, “Buy what things we need for the feast,” or that he should give something to the poor. 13,30 Therefore, having received that morsel, he went out immediately. It was night.

13,31 When he had gone out, Yeshua said, “Now the Son of Man has been glorified, and God has been glorified in him. 13,32 If God has been glorified in him, God will also glorify him in himself, and he will glorify him immediately. 13,33 Little children, I will be with you a little while longer. You will seek me, and as I said to the Y'hudim, ‘Where I am going, you can’t come,’ so now I tell you. 13,34 A new commandment I give to you, that you love one another, just like I have loved you; that you also love one another. 13,35 By this everyone will know that you are my talmidim, if you have love for one another.”

13,36 Simon Peter said to him, “Lord, where are you going?”

Yeshua answered, “Where I am going, you can’t follow now, but you will follow afterwards.”

13,37 Peter said to him, “Lord, why can’t I follow you now? I will lay down my life for you.”

13,38 Yeshua answered him, “Will you lay down your life for me? Most certainly I tell you, the rooster won’t crow until you have denied me three times.


Notes on Chapter 13



13-18. Psalm 41:9 back to 13:18



Chapter 14

14 1“Don’t let your heart be troubled. Believe in God. Believe also in me. 2 In my Father’s house are many homes.[2] If it weren’t so, I would have told you. I am going to prepare a place for you. 3 If I go and prepare a place for you, I will come again, and will receive you to myself; that where I am, you may be there also. 14,4 Where I go, you know, and you know the way.”

14,5 Thomas said to him, “Lord, we don’t know where you are going. How can we know the way?”

14,6 Yeshua said to him, “I am the way, the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father, except through me. 14,7 If you had known me, you would have known my Father also. From now on, you know him, and have seen him.”

14,8 Philip said to him, “Lord, show us the Father, and that will be enough for us.”

14,9 Yeshua said to him, “Have I been with you such a long time, and do you not know me, Philip? He who has seen me has seen the Father. How do you say, ‘Show us the Father?’ 14,10 Don’t you believe that I am in the Father, and the Father in me? The words that I tell you, I speak not from myself; but the Father who lives in me does his works. 14,11 Believe me that I am in the Father, and the Father in me; or else believe me for the very works’ sake. 14,12 Most certainly I tell you, he who believes in me, the works that I do, he will do also; and he will do greater works than these, because I am going to my Father. 14,13 Whatever you will ask in my name, that will I do, that the Father may be glorified in the Son. 14,14 If you will ask anything in my name, I will do it. 14,15 If you love me, keep my commandments. 14,16 I will pray to the Father, and he will give you another Counselor, that he may be with you forever,— 14,17 the Spirit of truth, whom the world can’t receive; for it doesn’t see him, neither knows him. You know him, for he lives with you, and will be in you. 14,18 I will not leave you orphans. I will come to you. 14,19 Yet a little while, and the world will see me no more; but you will see me. Because I live, you will live also. 14,20 In that day you will know that I am in my Father, and you in me, and I in you. 14,21 One who has my commandments, and keeps them, that person is one who loves me. One who loves me will be loved by my Father, and I will love him, and will reveal myself to him.”

14,22 Y'hudah (not Iscariot) said to him, “Lord, what has happened that you are about to reveal yourself to us, and not to the world?”

14,23 Yeshua answered him, “If a man loves me, he will keep my word. My Father will love him, and we will come to him, and make our home with him. 14,24 He who doesn’t love me doesn’t keep my words. The word which you hear isn’t mine, but the Father’s who sent me. 14,25 I have said these things to you, while still living with you. 14,26 But the Counselor, Ruach HaKodesh, whom the Father will send in my name, he will teach you all things, and will remind you of all that I said to you. 14,27 Peace I leave with you. My peace I give to you; not as the world gives, give I to you. Don’t let your heart be troubled, neither let it be fearful. 14,28 You heard how I told you, ‘I go away, and I come to you.’ If you loved me, you would have rejoiced, because I said ‘I am going to my Father;’ for the Father is greater than I. 14,29 Now I have told you before it happens so that, when it happens, you may believe. 14,30 I will no more speak much with you, for the prince of the world comes, and he has nothing in me. 14,31 But that the world may know that I love the Father, and as the Father commanded me, even so I do. Arise, let us go from here.


Notes on Chapter 14

14.2 In my Father’s house… See the note on Luke 1:27. [RETURN]

14-16. Greek Parakleton: Counselor, Helper, Intercessor, Advocate, and Comfortor. back to 14:16


Chapter 15

15,1 “I am the true vine, and my Father is the farmer. 15,2 Every branch in me that doesn’t bear fruit, he takes away. Every branch that bears fruit, he prunes, that it may bear more fruit. 15,3 You are already pruned clean because of the word which I have spoken to you. 15,4 Remain in me, and I in you. As the branch can’t bear fruit by itself, unless it remains in the vine, so neither can you, unless you remain in me. 15,5 I am the vine. You are the branches. He who remains in me, and I in him, the same bears much fruit, for apart from me you can do nothing. 15,6 If a man doesn’t remain in me, he is thrown out as a branch, and is withered; and they gather them, throw them into the fire, and they are burned. 15,7 If you remain in me, and my words remain in you, you will ask whatever you desire, and it will be done for you.

15,8 “In this is my Father glorified, that you bear much fruit; and so you will be my talmidim. 15,9 Even as the Father has loved me, I also have loved you. Remain in my love. 15,10 If you keep my commandments, you will remain in my love; even as I have kept my Father’s commandments, and remain in his love. 15,11 I have spoken these things to you, that my joy may remain in you, and that your joy may be made full.

15,12 “This is my commandment, that you love one another, even as I have loved you. 15,13 Greater love has no one than this, that someone lay down his life for his friends. 15,14 You are my friends, if you do whatever I command you. 15,15 No longer do I call you servants, for the servant doesn’t know what his lord does. But I have called you friends, for everything that I heard from my Father, I have made known to you. 15,16 You didn’t choose me, but I chose you, and appointed you, that you should go and bear fruit, and that your fruit should remain; that whatever you will ask of the Father in my name, he may give it to you.

15,17 “I command these things to you, that you may love one another. 15,18 If the world hates you, you know that it has hated me before it hated you. 15,19 If you were of the world, the world would love its own. But because you are not of the world, since I chose you out of the world, therefore the world hates you. 15,20 Remember the word that I said to you: ‘A servant is not greater than his lord.’* If they persecuted me, they will also persecute you. If they kept my word, they will keep yours also. 15,21 But all these things will they do to you for my name’s sake, because they don’t know him who sent me. 15,22 If I had not come and spoken to them, they would not have had sin; but now they have no excuse for their sin. 15,23 He who hates me, hates my Father also. 15,24 If I hadn’t done among them the works which no one else did, they wouldn’t have had sin. But now have they seen and also hated both me and my Father. 15,25 But this happened so that the word may be fulfilled which was written in their law, ‘They hated me without a cause.’*

15,26 “When the Counselor has come, whom I will send to you from the Father, the Spirit of truth, who proceeds from the Father, he will testify about me. 15,27 You will also testify, because you have been with me from the beginning.


Notes on Chapter 15


15-20. Yochanan 13:16 back to 15:20

15-25. Psalms 35:19; 69:4 back to 15:25

15-26. Greek Parakletos: Counselor, Helper, Advocate, Intercessor, and Comfortor. back to 15:26


Chapter 16

16,1 “These things have I spoken to you, so that you wouldn’t be caused to stumble. 16,2 They will put you out of the synagogues. Yes, the time comes that whoever kills you will think that he offers service to God. 16,3 They will do these things* because they have not known the Father, nor me. 16,4 But I have told you these things, so that when the time comes, you may remember that I told you about them. I didn’t tell you these things from the beginning, because I was with you. 16,5 But now I am going to him who sent me, and none of you asks me, ‘Where are you going?’ 16,6 But because I have told you these things, sorrow has filled your heart. 16,7 Nevertheless I tell you the truth: It is to your advantage that I go away, for if I don’t go away, the Counselor won’t come to you. But if I go, I will send him to you. 16,8 When he has come, he will convict the world about sin, about righteousness, and about judgment; 16,9 about sin, because they don’t believe in me; 16,10 about righteousness, because I am going to my Father, and you won’t see me any more; 16,11 about judgment, because the prince of this world has been judged.

16,12 “I have yet many things to tell you, but you can’t bear them now. 16,13 However when he, the Spirit of truth, has come, he will guide you into all truth, for he will not speak from himself; but whatever he hears, he will speak. He will declare to you things that are coming. 16,14 He will glorify me, for he will take from what is mine, and will declare it to you. 16,15 All things whatever the Father has are mine; therefore I said that he takes of mine, and will declare it to you. 16,16 A little while, and you will not see me. Again a little while, and you will see me.”

16,17 Some of his talmidim therefore said to one another, “What is this that he says to us, ‘A little while, and you won’t see me, and again a little while, and you will see me;’ and, ‘Because I go to the Father?’ ” 16,18 They said therefore, “What is this that he says, ‘A little while?’ We don’t know what he is saying.”

16,19 Therefore Yeshua perceived that they wanted to ask him, and he said to them, “Do you inquire among yourselves concerning this, that I said, ‘A little while, and you won’t see me, and again a little while, and you will see me?’ 16,20 Most certainly I tell you, that you will weep and lament, but the world will rejoice. You will be sorrowful, but your sorrow will be turned into joy. 16,21 A woman, when she gives birth, has sorrow, because her time has come. But when she has delivered the child, she doesn’t remember the anguish any more, for the joy that a human being is born into the world. 16,22 Therefore you now have sorrow, but I will see you again, and your heart will rejoice, and no one will take your joy away from you.

16,23 “In that day you will ask me no questions. Most certainly I tell you, whatever you may ask of the Father in my name, he will give it to you. 16,24 Until now, you have asked nothing in my name. Ask, and you will receive, that your joy may be made full. 16,25 I have spoken these things to you in figures of speech. But the time is coming when I will no more speak to you in figures of speech, but will tell you plainly about the Father. 16,26 In that day you will ask in my name; and I don’t say to you, that I will pray to the Father for you, 16,27 for the Father himself loves you, because you have loved me, and have believed that I came forth from God. 16,28 I came out from the Father, and have come into the world. Again, I leave the world, and go to the Father.”

16,29 His talmidim said to him, “Behold, now you speak plainly, and speak no figures of speech. 16,30 Now we know that you know all things, and don’t need for anyone to question you. By this we believe that you came forth from God.”

16,31 Yeshua answered them, “Do you now believe? 16,32 Behold, the time is coming, yes, and has now come, that you will be scattered, everyone to his own place, and you will leave me alone. Yet I am not alone, because the Father is with me. 16,33 I have told you these things, that in me you may have peace. In the world you have oppression; but cheer up! I have overcome the world.”


Notes on Chapter 16


16-3. TR adds “to you” back to 16:3

16-15. TR reads “will take” instead of “takes” back to 16:15


Chapter 17

17,1 Yeshua said these things, and looking toward heaven, He said, “Father, the time has come. Glorify your Son, that your Son may also glorify you; 17,2 even as you gave him authority over all flesh, he will give eternal life to all whom you have given him. 17,3 This is eternal life, that they should know you, the only true God, and him whom you sent, Yeshua the Mashiach. 17,4 I glorified you on the earth. I have accomplished the work which you have given me to do. 17,5 Now, Father, glorify me with your own self with the glory which I had with you before the world existed. 17,6 I revealed your name to the people whom you have given me out of the world. They were yours, and you have given them to me. They have kept your word. 17,7 Now they have known that all things whatever you have given me are from you, 17,8 for the words which you have given me I have given to them, and they received them, and knew for sure that I came forth from you, and they have believed that you sent me. 17,9 I pray for them. I don’t pray for the world, but for those whom you have given me, for they are yours. 17,10 All things that are mine are yours, and yours are mine, and I am glorified in them. 17,11 I am no more in the world, but these are in the world, and I am coming to you. Holy Father, keep them through your name which you have given me, that they may be one, even as we are. 17,12 While I was with them in the world, I kept them in your name. Those whom you have given me I have kept. None of them is lost, except the son of destruction, that the Scripture might be fulfilled. 17,13 But now I come to you, and I say these things in the world, that they may have my joy made full in themselves. 17,14 I have given them your word. The world hated them, because they are not of the world, even as I am not of the world. 17,15 I pray not that you would take them from the world, but that you would keep them from the evil one. 17,16 They are not of the world even as I am not of the world. 17,17 Sanctify them in your truth. Your word is truth.* 17,18 As you sent me into the world, even so I have sent them into the world. 17,19 For their sakes I sanctify myself, that they themselves also may be sanctified in truth. 17,20 Not for these only do I pray, but for those also who believe in me through their word, 17,21 that they may all be one; even as you, Father, are in me, and I in you, that they also may be one in us; that the world may believe that you sent me. 17,22 The glory which you have given me, I have given to them; that they may be one, even as we are one; 17,23 I in them, and you in me, that they may be perfected into one; that the world may know that you sent me, and loved them, even as you loved me. 17,24 Father, I desire that they also whom you have given me be with me where I am, that they may see my Shekinah, which you have given me, for you loved me before the foundation of the world. 17,25 Righteous Father, the world hasn’t known you, but I knew you; and these knew that you sent me. 17,26 I made known to them your name, and will make it known; that the love with which you loved me may be in them, and I in them.”


Notes on Chapter 17

17-17. Psalm 119:142 back to 17:17



Chapter 18

18,1 When Yeshua had spoken these words, he went out with his talmidim over the brook Kidron, where there was a garden, into which he and his talmidim entered. 18,2 Now Y'hudah, who betrayed him, also knew the place, for Yeshua often met there with his talmidim. 18,3 Y'hudah then, having taken a detachment of soldiers and officers from the Cohenim Gadolim and the Perushim, came there with lanterns, torches, and weapons. 18,4 Yeshua therefore, knowing all the things that were happening to him, went forth, and said to them, “Who are you looking for?”

18,5 They answered him, “Yeshua of Nazareth.”

Yeshua said to them, “I am he.”

Y'hudah also, who betrayed him, was standing with them. 18,6 When therefore he said to them, “I am he,” they went backward, and fell to the ground.

18,7 Again therefore he asked them, “Who are you looking for?”

They said, “Yeshua of Nazareth.”

18,8 Yeshua answered, “I told you that I am he. If therefore you seek me, let these go their way,” 18,9 that the word might be fulfilled which he spoke, “Of those whom you have given me, I have lost none.” *

18,10 Simon Peter therefore, having a sword, drew it, and struck the high priest’s servant, and cut off his right ear. The servant’s name was Malchus. 18,11 Yeshua therefore said to Peter, “Put the sword into its sheath. The cup which the Father has given me, shall I not surely drink it?”

18,12 So the detachment, the commanding officer, and the officers of the Y'hudim, seized Yeshua and bound him, 18,13 and led him to Annas first, for he was father-in-law to Caiaphas, who was high priest that year. 18,14 Now it was Caiaphas who advised the Y'hudim that it was expedient that one man should perish for the people. 18,15 Simon Peter followed Yeshua, as did another talmid. Now that talmid was known to the high priest, and entered in with Yeshua into the court of the high priest; 18,16 but Peter was standing at the door outside. So the other talmid, who was known to the high priest, went out and spoke to her who kept the door, and brought in Peter. 18,17 Then the maid who kept the door said to Peter, “Are you also one of this man’s talmidim?”

He said, “I am not.”

18,18 Now the servants and the officers were standing there, having made a fire of coals, for it was cold. They were warming themselves. Peter was with them, standing and warming himself. 18,19 The high priest therefore asked Yeshua about his talmidim, and about his teaching. 18,20 Yeshua answered him, “I spoke openly to the world. I always taught in synagogues, and in the temple, where the Y’hudim always meet. I said nothing in secret. 18,21 Why do you ask me? Ask those who have heard me what I said to them. Behold, these know the things which I said.”

18,22 When he had said this, one of the officers standing by slapped Yeshua with his hand, saying, “Do you answer the high priest like that?”

18,23 Yeshua answered him, “If I have spoken evil, testify of the evil; but if well, why do you beat me?”

18,24 Annas sent him bound to Caiaphas, the high priest. 18,25 Now Simon Peter was standing and warming himself. They said therefore to him, “You aren’t also one of his talmidim, are you?”

He denied it, and said, “I am not.”

18,26 One of the servants of the high priest, being a relative of him whose ear Peter had cut off, said, “Didn’t I see you in the garden with him?”

18,27 Peter therefore denied it again, and immediately the rooster crowed.

18,28 They led Yeshua therefore from Caiaphas into the Praetorium. It was early, and they themselves didn’t enter into the Praetorium, that they might not be defiled, but might eat the Passover. 18,29 Pilate therefore went out to them, and said, “What accusation do you bring against this man?”

18,30 They answered him, “If this man weren’t an evildoer, we wouldn’t have delivered him up to you.”

18,31 Pilate therefore said to them, “Take him yourselves, and judge him according to your law.”

Therefore the Y'hudim said to him, “It is not lawful for us to put anyone to death,” 18,32 that the word of Yeshua might be fulfilled, which he spoke, signifying by what kind of death he should die.

18,33 Pilate therefore entered again into the Praetorium, called Yeshua, and said to him, “Are you the King of the Y’hudim?”

18,34 Yeshua answered him, “Do you say this by yourself, or did others tell you about me?”

18,35 Pilate answered, “I’m not a Jew, am I? Your own nation and the Cohenim Gadolim delivered you to me. What have you done?”

18,36 Yeshua answered, “My Kingdom is not of this world. If my Kingdom were of this world, then my servants would fight, that I wouldn’t be delivered to the Y'hudim. But now my Kingdom is not from here.”

18,37 Pilate therefore said to him, “Are you a king then?”

Yeshua answered, “You say that I am a king. For this reason I have been born, and for this reason I have come into the world, that I should testify to the truth. Everyone who is of the truth listens to my voice.”

18,38 Pilate said to him, “What is truth?”

When he had said this, he went out again to the Y'hudim, and said to them, “I find no basis for a charge against him. 18,39 But you have a custom, that I should release someone to you at the Passover. Therefore do you want me to release to you the King of the Y’hudim?”

18,40 Then they all shouted again, saying, “Not this man, but Barabbas!” Now Barabbas was a robber.


Notes on Chapter 18


18-9. Yochanan 6:39 back to 18:9


Chapter 19

19,1 So Pilate then took Yeshua, and flogged him. 19,2 The soldiers twisted thorns into a crown, and put it on his head, and dressed him in a purple garment. 19,3 They kept saying, “Hail, King of the Y’hudim!” and they kept slapping him.

19,4 Then Pilate went out again, and said to them, “Behold, I bring him out to you, that you may know that I find no basis for a charge against him.”

19,5 Yeshua therefore came out, wearing the crown of thorns and the purple garment. Pilate said to them, “Behold, the man!”

19,6 When therefore the Cohenim Gadolim and the officers saw him, they shouted, saying, “Crucify! Crucify!”

Pilate said to them, “Take him yourselves, and crucify him, for I find no basis for a charge against him.”

19,7 The Y'hudim answered him, “We have a law, and by our law he ought to die, because he made himself the Son of God.”

19,8 When therefore Pilate heard this saying, he was more afraid. 19,9 He entered into the Praetorium again, and said to Yeshua, “Where are you from?” But Yeshua gave him no answer. 19,10 Pilate therefore said to him, “Aren’t you speaking to me? Don’t you know that I have power to release you, and have power to crucify you?”

19,11 Yeshua answered, “You would have no power at all against me, unless it were given to you from above. Therefore he who delivered me to you has greater sin.”

19,12 At this, Pilate was seeking to release him, but the Y'hudim cried out, saying, “If you release this man, you aren’t Caesar’s friend! Everyone who makes himself a king speaks against Caesar!”

19,13 When Pilate therefore heard these words, he brought Yeshua out, and sat down on the judgment seat at a place called “The Pavement,” but in Hebrew, “Gabbatha.” 19,14 Now it was the Preparation Day of the Passover, at about the sixth hour. He said to the Y'hudim, “Behold, your King!”

19,15 They cried out, “Away with him! Away with him! Crucify him!”

Pilate said to them, “Shall I crucify your King?”

The Cohenim Gadolim answered, “We have no king but Caesar!”

19,16 So then he delivered him to them to be crucified. So they took Yeshua and led him away. 19,17 He went out, bearing his cross, to the place called “The Place of a Skull,” which is called in Hebrew, “Golgotha,” 19,18 where they crucified him, and with him two others, on either side one, and Yeshua in the middle. 19,19 Pilate wrote a title also, and put it on the cross. There was written, “YESHUA OF NAZARETH, THE KING OF THE Y’hudim.” 19,20 Therefore many of the Y'hudim read this title, for the place where Yeshua was crucified was near the city; and it was written in Hebrew, in Latin, and in Greek. 19,21 The Cohenim Gadolim of the Y'hudim therefore said to Pilate, “Don’t write, ‘The King of the Y’hudim,’ but, ‘he said, I am King of the Y’hudim.’”

19,22 Pilate answered, “What I have written, I have written.”

19,23 Then the soldiers, when they had crucified Yeshua, took his garments and made four parts, to every soldier a part; and also the coat. Now the coat was without seam, woven from the top throughout. 19,24 Then they said to one another, “Let’s not tear it, but cast lots for it to decide whose it will be,” that the Scripture might be fulfilled, which says,

“They parted my garments among them.
For my cloak they cast lots.”*

Therefore the soldiers did these things. 19,25 But there were standing by the cross of Yeshua his mother, and his mother’s sister, Miryam the wife of Klofah, and Miryam Magdalene. 19,26 Therefore when Yeshua saw his mother, and the talmid whom he loved standing there, he said to his mother, “Woman, behold your son!” 19,27 Then he said to the talmid, “Behold, your mother!” From that hour, the talmid took her to his own home.

19,28 After this, Yeshua, seeing that all things were now finished, that the Scripture might be fulfilled, said, “I am thirsty.” 19,29 Now a vessel full of vinegar was set there; so they put a sponge full of the vinegar on hyssop, and held it at his mouth. 19,30 When Yeshua therefore had received the vinegar, he said, “It is finished.” He bowed his head, and gave up his spirit.

19,31 Therefore the Y'hudim, because it was the Preparation Day, so that the bodies wouldn’t remain on the cross on the Sabbath (for that Sabbath was a special one), asked of Pilate that their legs might be broken, and that they might be taken away. 19,32 Therefore the soldiers came, and broke the legs of the first, and of the other who was crucified with him; 19,33 but when they came to Yeshua, and saw that he was already dead, they didn’t break his legs. 19,34 However one of the soldiers pierced his side with a spear, and immediately blood and water came out. 19,35 He who has seen has testified, and his testimony is true. He knows that he tells the truth, that you may believe. 19,36 For these things happened, that the Scripture might be fulfilled, “A bone of him will not be broken.”* 19,37 Again another Scripture says, “They will look on him whom they pierced.”*

19,38 After these things, Yosef of Arimathaea, being a talmid of Yeshua, but secretly for fear of the Y'hudim, asked of Pilate that he might take away Yeshua’s body. Pilate gave him permission. He came therefore and took away his body. 19,39 Nakdimon, who at first came to Yeshua by night, also came bringing a mixture of myrrh and aloes, about a hundred Roman pounds. 19,40 So they took Yeshua’s body, and bound it in linen cloths with the spices, as the custom of the Y'hudim is to bury. 19,41 Now in the place where he was crucified there was a garden. In the garden was a new tomb in which no man had ever yet been laid. 19,42 Then because of the Y'hudim’ Preparation Day (for the tomb was near at hand) they laid Yeshua there.


Notes on Chapter 19



19-14. noon back to 19:14

19-24. Psalm 22:18 back to 19:24

19-28. NU, TR read “knowing” instead of “seeing” back to 19:28

19-36. Exodus 12:46; Numbers 9:12; Psalm 34:20 back to 19:36

19-37. Zechariah 12:10 back to 19:37

19-39. 100 Roman pounds of 12 ounces each, or about 72 pounds, or 33 Kilograms. back to 19:39



Chapter 20

20,1 Now on the first day of the week, Miryam Magdalene went early, while it was still dark, to the tomb, and saw the stone taken away from the tomb. 20,2 Therefore she ran and came to Simon Peter, and to the other talmid whom Yeshua loved, and said to them, “They have taken away the Lord out of the tomb, and we don’t know where they have laid him!”

20,3 Therefore Peter and the other talmid went out, and they went toward the tomb. 20,4 They both ran together. The other talmid outran Peter, and came to the tomb first. 20,5 Stooping and looking in, he saw the linen cloths lying, yet he didn’t enter in. 20,6 Then Simon Peter came, following him, and entered into the tomb. He saw the linen cloths lying, 20,7 and the cloth that had been on his head, not lying with the linen cloths, but rolled up in a place by itself. 20,8 So then the other talmid who came first to the tomb also entered in, and he saw and believed. 20,9 For as yet they didn’t know the Scripture, that he must rise from the dead. 20,10 So the talmidim went away again to their own homes.

20,11 But Miryam was standing outside at the tomb weeping. So, as she wept, she stooped and looked into the tomb, 20,12 and she saw two angels in white sitting, one at the head, and one at the feet, where the body of Yeshua had lain. 20,13 They told her, “Woman, why are you weeping?”

She said to them, “Because they have taken away my Lord, and I don’t know where they have laid him.” 20,14 When she had said this, she turned around and saw Yeshua standing, and didn’t know that it was Yeshua.

20,15 Yeshua said to her, “Woman, why are you weeping? Who are you looking for?”

She, supposing him to be the gardener, said to him, “Sir, if you have carried him away, tell me where you have laid him, and I will take him away.”

20,16 Yeshua said to her, “Miryam.”

She turned and said to him, “Rhabbouni!” which is to say, “Rabbi!”

20,17 Yeshua said to her, “Don’t touch me, for I haven’t yet ascended to my Father; but go to my brothers, and tell them, ‘I am ascending to my Father and your Father, to my God and your God.’”

20,18 Miryam Magdalene came and told the talmidim that she had seen the Lord, and that he had said these things to her. 20,19 When therefore it was evening, on that day, the first day of the week, and when the doors were locked where the talmidim were assembled, for fear of the Y'hudim, Yeshua came and stood in the midst, and said to them, “Peace be to you.”

20,20 When he had said this, he showed them his hands and his side. The talmidim therefore were glad when they saw the Lord. 20,21 Yeshua therefore said to them again, “Peace be to you. As the Father has sent me, even so I send you.” 20,22 When he had said this, he breathed on them, and said to them, “Receive Ruach HaKodesh! 20,23 Whoever’s sins you forgive, they are forgiven them. Whoever’s sins you retain, they have been retained.”

20,24 But Thomas, one of the twelve, called Didymus, wasn’t with them when Yeshua came. 20,25 The other talmidim therefore said to him, “We have seen the Lord!”

But he said to them, “Unless I see in his hands the print of the nails, and put my hand into his side, I will not believe.”

20,26 After eight days again his talmidim were inside, and Thomas was with them. Yeshua came, the doors being locked, and stood in the midst, and said, “Peace be to you.” 20,27 Then he said to Thomas, “Reach here your finger, and see my hands. Reach here your hand, and put it into my side. Don’t be unbelieving, but believing.”

20,28 Thomas answered him, “My Lord and my God!”

20,29 Yeshua said to him, “Because you have seen me,* you have believed. Blessed are those who have not seen, and have believed.”

20,30 Therefore Yeshua did many other signs in the presence of his talmidim, which are not written in this book; 20,31 but these are written, that you may believe that Yeshua is the Mashiach, the Son of God, and that believing you may have life in his name.


Notes on Chapter 20


20-29. TR adds “Thomas,” back to 20:29



Chapter 21

21,1 After these things, Yeshua revealed himself again to the talmidim at the sea of Tiberias. He revealed himself this way. 21,2 Simon Peter, Thomas called Didymus, Natanael of Kanah in the Galil, and the sons of Zebedee, and two others of his talmidim were together. 21,3 Simon Peter said to them, “I’m going fishing.”

They told him, “We are also coming with you.” They immediately went out, and entered into the boat. That night, they caught nothing. 21,4 But when day had already come, Yeshua stood on the beach, yet the talmidim didn’t know that it was Yeshua. 21,5 Yeshua therefore said to them, “Children, have you anything to eat?”

They answered him, “No.”

21,6 He said to them, “Cast the net on the right side of the boat, and you will find some.”

They cast it therefore, and now they weren’t able to draw it in for the multitude of fish. 21,7 That talmid therefore whom Yeshua loved said to Peter, “It’s the Lord!”

So when Simon Peter heard that it was the Lord, he wrapped his coat around him (for he was naked), and threw himself into the sea. 21,8 But the other talmidim came in the little boat (for they were not far from the land, but about two hundred cubits away), dragging the net full of fish. 21,9 So when they got out on the land, they saw a fire of coals there, and fish laid on it, and bread. 21,10 Yeshua said to them, “Bring some of the fish which you have just caught.”

21,11 Simon Peter went up, and drew the net to land, full of great fish, one hundred fifty-three; and even though there were so many, the net wasn’t torn.

21,12 Yeshua said to them, “Come and eat breakfast.”

None of the talmidim dared inquire of him, “Who are you?” knowing that it was the Lord.

21,13 Then Yeshua came and took the bread, gave it to them, and the fish likewise. 21,14 This is now the third time that Yeshua was revealed to his talmidim, after he had risen from the dead. 21,15 So when they had eaten their breakfast, Yeshua said to Simon Peter, “Simon, son of Jonah, do you love me more than these?”

He said to him, “Yes, Lord; you know that I have affection for you.”

He said to him, “Feed my lambs.” 21,16 He said to him again a second time, “Simon, son of Jonah, do you love me?”

He said to him, “Yes, Lord; you know that I have affection for you.”

He said to him, “Tend my sheep.” 21,17 He said to him the third time, “Simon, son of Jonah, do you have affection for me?”

Peter was grieved because he asked him the third time, “Do you have affection for me?” He said to him, “Lord, you know everything. You know that I have affection for you.”

Yeshua said to him, “Feed my sheep. 21,18 Most certainly I tell you, when you were young, you dressed yourself, and walked where you wanted to. But when you are old, you will stretch out your hands, and another will dress you, and carry you where you don’t want to go.”

21,19 Now he said this, signifying by what kind of death he would glorify God. When he had said this, he said to him, “Follow me.”

21,20 Then Peter, turning around, saw a talmid following. This was the talmid whom Yeshua sincerely loved, the one who had also leaned on Yeshua’s breast at the supper and asked, “Lord, who is going to betray You?” 21,21 Peter seeing him, said to Yeshua, “Lord, what about this man?”

21,22 Yeshua said to him, “If I desire that he stay until I come, what is that to you? You follow me.” 21,23 This saying therefore went out among the brothers, that this talmid wouldn’t die. Yet Yeshua didn’t say to him that he wouldn’t die, but, “If I desire that he stay until I come, what is that to you?” 21,24 This is the talmid who testifies about these things, and wrote these things. We know that his witness is true. 21,25 There are also many other things which Yeshua did, which if they would all be written, I suppose that even the world itself wouldn’t have room for the books that would be written.


Notes on Chapter 21


21-8. 200 cubits is about 100 yards or about 91 meters back to 21:8

21-23. The word for “brothers” here may be also correctly translated “brothers and sisters” or “siblings.” back to 21:23




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