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This is my own personal rendering or paraphrase of (and commentary on) the Tanakh and Apostolic Writings. It should not be considered in any way authoritative. It is based on The World English Bible: Messianic Edition, also known as the Hebrew Names Version, which is in the Public Domain.

About This Version

For a glossary of unfamiliar terms, CLICK HERE.
For assistance in pronouncing Hebrew terms, a pronunciation guide is located HERE.
My short comments on the text are notated in “maroon pop-up text tips” which are accessed by “hovering” your mouse over the text. [Some short comments look like this.] Longer comments are included in footnotes. I have added emphasis to some phrases simply to call them to your attention.
Tanakh Scroll
Under Construction
While this page is under construction, it is extremely difficult to keep the footnotes sequential, as I review the text numerous times, adding new ideas and notes on almost every pass. When I have finished adding all the notes and comments then I intend to add, I will go back and make the footnotes orderly.


Judgment on Neighbor Nations

1:1The words of `Amos, who was one of the herdsmen of Tekoa, which he saw in visions concerning Yisra'el in the days of `Uzziyah king of Y'hudah, and in the days of Yarov`am the son of Yo'ash king of Yisra'el, two years before the earthquake. 1:2He said:

 “ADONAI roars from Tziyon,
      And utters His voice from Yerushalayim;

 And the shepherds’ pastures mourn,
      And the summit of Karmel dries up.”

1:3This is what ADONAI says:

 “For three transgressions of Dammesek, yes, for four,
      I will not set aside its punishment;
      Because they have threshed Gil`ad with threshing instruments of iron;

 1:4So I will send a fire into the house of Chaza'el,[1]
      And it will devour the palaces of Ben-Hadad.

 1:5I will break the gate bar of Dammesek,
      And cut off the inhabitant from the valley of Aven,
      And him who holds the scepter from the house of `Eden;
      And the people of Aram shall go into captivity to Kir,”
      says ADONAI.

1:6This is what ADONAI says:

 "For three transgressions of `Aza, yes, for four,
      I will not turn away its punishment;
      Because they carried away captive the whole community,
      To deliver them up to Edom;

 1:7But I will send a fire on the wall of `Aza,
      And it will devour its palaces.

 1:8I will cut off the inhabitant from Ashdod,
      And him who holds the scepter from Ashkelon;

 And I will turn my hand against `Ekron;
      And the remnant of the Pelishtim will perish,"
      says the Lord ADONAI.

1:9Thus says ADONAI:

 "For three transgressions of Tzor, yes, for four,
      I will not turn away its punishment;
      Because they delivered up the whole community to Edom,
      And didn't remember the brotherly covenant;

 1:10But I will send a fire on the wall of Tzor,
      And it will devour its palaces."

1:11Thus says ADONAI:

 "For three transgressions of Edom, yes, for four,
      I will not turn away its punishment;
      Because he pursued his brother with the sword,
      And cast off all pity,
      And his anger raged continually,
      And he kept his wrath forever;

 1:12But I will send a fire on Teman,
      And it will devour the palaces of Botzrah."

1:13Thus says ADONAI:

 "For three transgressions of the children of `Ammon, yes, for four,
      I will not turn away its punishment;
      Because they have ripped open the pregnant women of Gil`ad,
      That they may enlarge their border.

 1:14But I will kindle a fire in the wall of Rabbah,
      And it will devour its palaces,
      With shouting in the day of battle,
      With a tempest in the day of the whirlwind;

 1:15And their king will go into captivity,
      He and his princes together,"
      says ADONAI.

Judgment on Judah and Israel

2:1Thus says ADONAI:

 "For three transgressions of Mo'av, yes, for four,
      I will not turn away its punishment;
      Because he burned the bones of the king of Edom into lime;

 2:2But I will send a fire on Mo'av,
      And it will devour the palaces of Keriyot;
      And Mo'av will die with tumult, with shouting, and with the sound of the shofar;

 2:3And I will cut off the judge from their midst,
      And will kill all its princes with him,"
      says ADONAI.

2:4Thus says ADONAI:

 "For three transgressions of Y'hudah, yes, for four,
      I will not turn away its punishment;
      Because they have rejected ADONAI's law,
      And have not kept his statutes,
      And their lies have led them astray,
      After which their fathers walked;

 2:5But I will send a fire on Y'hudah,
      And it will devour the palaces of Yerushalayim."

2:6Thus says ADONAI:

 "For three transgressions of Yisra'el, yes, for four,
      I will not turn away its punishment;
      Because they have sold the righteous for silver,
      And the needy for a pair of shoes;
      2:7They trample on the dust of the earth on the head of the poor,
      And deny justice to the oppressed;
      And a man and his father use the same maiden, to profane my holy name;
      2:8And they lay themselves down beside every altar on clothes taken in pledge;
      And in the house of their God they drink the wine of those who have been fined.

 2:9Yet I destroyed the Amori before them,
      Whose height was like the height of the cedars,
      And he was strong as the oaks;
      Yet I destroyed his fruit from above,
      and his roots from beneath.

 2:10Also I brought you up out of the land of Egypt,
      And led you forty years in the wilderness,
      To possess the land of the Amori.

 2:11I raised up some of your sons for prophets,
      And some of your young men for Nazirim.

 Isn't this true,
      You children of Yisra'el?" says ADONAI.

 2:12"But you gave the Nazirim wine to drink,
      And commanded the prophets, saying, 'Don't prophesy!'

 2:13Behold, I will crush you in your place,
      As a cart crushes that is full of grain.

 2:14Flight will perish from the swift;
      And the strong won't strengthen his force;
      Neither shall the mighty deliver himself;
      2:15Neither shall he stand who handles the bow;
      And he who is swift of foot won't escape;
      Neither shall he who rides the horse deliver himself;

 2:16And he who is courageous among the mighty will flee away naked in that day,"
      says ADONAI.

All the Tribes Are Guilty

3:1Hear this word that ADONAI has spoken against you, children of Yisra'el, against the whole family which I brought up out of the land of Egypt, saying:

 3:2"You only have I chosen of all the families of the earth.
      Therefore I will punish you for all of your sins."

 3:3Do two walk together,
      Unless they have agreed?

 3:4Will a lion roar in the thicket,
      When he has no prey?

 Does a young lion cry out of his den,
      If he has caught nothing?

 3:5Can a bird fall in a trap on the earth,
      Where no snare is set for him?

 Does a snare spring up from the ground,
      When there is nothing to catch?

 3:6Does the shofar alarm sound in a city,
      Without the people being afraid?

 Does evil happen to a city,
      And ADONAI hasn't done it?

 3:7Surely the Lord ADONAI will do nothing,
      Unless he reveals his secret to his servants the prophets.

 3:8The lion has roared.
      Who will not fear?

 The Lord ADONAI has spoken.
      Who can but prophesy?

 3:9Proclaim in the palaces at Ashdod,
      And in the palaces in the land of Egypt,

 And say, "Assemble yourselves on the mountains of Shomron,
      And see what unrest is in her,
      And what oppression is among them."

 3:10"Indeed they don't know to do right," says ADONAI,
      "Who hoard plunder and loot in their palaces."

3:11Therefore thus says the Lord ADONAI:

 "An adversary will overrun the land;
      And he will pull down your strongholds,
      And your fortresses will be plundered."

3:12Thus says ADONAI:

 "As the shepherd rescues out of the mouth of the lion two legs,
      Or a piece of an ear,
      So shall the children of Yisra'el be rescued who sit in Shomron on the corner of a couch,
      And on the silken cushions of a bed."

3:13"Listen, and testify against the house of Ya`akov," says the Lord ADONAI, the God Tzva'ot.

 3:14"For in the day that I visit the transgressions of Yisra'el on him,
      I will also visit the altars of Beit-El;
      And the horns of the altar will be cut off,
      And fall to the ground.

 3:15I will strike the winter house with the summer house;
      And the houses of ivory will perish,
      And the great houses will have an end,"
      says ADONAI.

“Yet You Have Not Returned to Me”

4:1Listen to this word, you cows of Bashan, who are on the mountain of Shomron, who oppress the poor, who crush the needy, who tell their lords, "Bring, and let us drink."

 4:2The Lord ADONAI has sworn by his holiness that behold,
      "The days shall come on you that they will take you away with hooks,
      And the last of you with fish hooks.

 4:3You will go out at the breaks in the wall,
      Everyone straight before her;
      And you will cast yourselves into Harmon," says ADONAI.

 4:4"Go to Beit-El, and sin;
      To Gilgal, and sin more.

 Bring your sacrifices every morning,
      Your tithes every three days,
      4:5Offer a sacrifice of thanksgiving of that which is leavened,
      And proclaim free will offerings and brag about them:
      For this pleases you, you children of Yisra'el," says the Lord ADONAI.

 4:6"I also have given you cleanness of teeth in all your cities,
      And lack of bread in every town;
      Yet you haven't returned to me," says ADONAI.

 4:7"I also have withheld the rain from you,
      When there were yet three months to the harvest;
      And I caused it to rain on one city,
      And caused it not to rain on another city.

 One place was rained on,
      And the piece where it didn't rain withered.

 4:8So two or three cities staggered to one city to drink water,
      And were not satisfied:
      Yet you haven't returned to me," says ADONAI.

 4:9I struck you with blight and mildew many times in your gardens and your vineyards;
      And your fig trees and your olive trees have the swarming arbeh devoured:
      Yet you haven't returned to me," says ADONAI.

 4:10I sent plagues among you like I did Egypt.
      I have slain your young men with the sword,
      And have carried away your horses;
      And I filled your nostrils with the stench of your camp
      Yet you haven't returned to me," says ADONAI.

 4:11"I have overthrown some of you,
      As when God overthrew Sedom and `Amorah,
      And you were like a burning stick plucked out of the fire;
      Yet you haven't returned to me," says ADONAI.

 4:12"Therefore thus will I do to you, Yisra'el;
      Because I will do this to you,
      Prepare to meet your God, Yisra'el.

 4:13For, behold, he who forms the mountains,
      And creates the wind,
      And declares to man what is his thought;
      Who makes the morning darkness,
      And treads on the high places of the Earth:
      ADONAI, the God Tzva'ot,, is his name."

“Seek Me that You May Live”

5:1Listen to this word which I take up for a lamentation over you, O house of Yisra'el.

 5:2"The virgin of Yisra'el has fallen;
      She shall rise no more.

 She is cast down on her land;
      There is no one to raise her up."

5:3For thus says the Lord ADONAI:

 "The city that went forth a thousand shall have a hundred left,
      And that which went forth one hundred shall have ten left to the house of Yisra'el."

5:4For thus says ADONAI to the house of Yisra'el:

 "Seek me, and you will live;

 5:5But don't seek Beit-El,
      Nor enter into Gilgal,
      And don't pass to Be'er-Sheva:

 For Gilgal shall surely go into captivity,
      And Beit-El shall come to nothing.

 5:6Seek ADONAI, and you will live;
      Lest he break out like fire in the house of Yosef,
      And it devour, and there be no one to quench it in Beit-El.

 5:7You who turn justice to wormwood,
      And cast down righteousness to the earth:

 5:8Seek him who made the Kima and Kesil,
      And turns the shadow of death into the morning,
      And makes the day dark with night;
      Who calls for the waters of the sea,
      And pours them out on the surface of the earth, ADONAI is his name,

 5:9Who brings sudden destruction on the strong,
      So that destruction comes on the fortress.

 5:10They hate him who reproves in the gate,
      And they abhor him who speaks blamelessly.

 5:11Forasmuch therefore as you trample on the poor,
      And take taxes from him of wheat:
      You have built houses of hewn stone,
      But you will not dwell in them.

 You have planted pleasant vineyards,
      But you shall not drink their wine.

 5:12For I know how many your offenses,
      And how great are your sins--
      You who afflict the just,
      Who take a bribe,
      And who turn aside the needy in the courts.

 5:13Therefore he who is prudent shall keep silence in such a time;
      For it is an evil time.

 5:14Seek good, and not evil,
      That you may live;
      And so ADONAI, the God Tzva'ot, will be with you,
      As you say.

 5:15Hate evil, love good,
      And establish justice in the courts.
      It may be that ADONAI, the God Tzva'ot, will be gracious to the remnant of Yosef."

5:16Therefore thus says ADONAI, the God Tzva'ot, the Lord:

 "Wailing will be in all the broad ways;
      And they will say in all the streets, 'Alas! Alas!'
      And they will call the farmer to mourning,
      And those who are skillful in lamentation to wailing.

 5:17In all vineyards there will be wailing;
      For I will pass through the midst of you," says ADONAI.

 5:18"Woe to you who desire the day of ADONAI!
      Why do you long for the day of ADONAI?

 It is darkness,
      And not light.

 5:19As if a man fled from a lion,
      And a bear met him;

 Or he went into the house and leaned his hand on the wall,
      And a snake bit him.

 5:20Will the day of ADONAI not be darkness, and not light?
      Even very dark, and no brightness in it?

 5:21I hate, I despise your feasts,
      And I can't stand your solemn assemblies.

 5:22Yes, though you offer me your burnt offerings and meal-offerings,
      I will not accept them;
      Neither will I regard the shalom offerings of your fat animals.

 5:23Take away from me the noise of your songs!
      I will not listen to the music of your harps.

 5:24But let justice roll on like rivers,
      And righteousness like a mighty stream.

55:25"Did you bring to me sacrifices and offerings in the wilderness forty years, house of Yisra'el? 5:26Yes, you have borne the tent of your king and the shrine of your images, the star of your god, which you made for yourselves. 5:27Therefore will I cause you to go into captivity beyond Dammesek," says ADONAI, whose name is the God Tzva'ot.

“Those at Ease in Zion”

 6:1Woe to those who are at ease in Tziyon,
      And to those who are secure on the mountain of Shomron,
      The notable men of the chief of the nations,
      To whom the house of Yisra'el come!

 6:2Go to Kalneh, and see;
      And from there go to Chamat the great;
      Then go down to Gat of the Pelishtim.

 Are they better than these kingdoms?
      Or is their border greater than your border?

 6:3Those who put far away the evil day,
      And cause the seat of violence to come near;
      6:4Who lie on beds of ivory,
      And stretch themselves on their couches,
      And eat the lambs out of the flock,
      And the calves out of the midst of the stall;
      6:5Who strum on the strings of a harp;
      Who invent for themselves instruments of music, like David;
      6:6Who drink wine in bowls,
      And anoint themselves with the best oils;
      But they are not grieved for the affliction of Yosef.

 6:7Therefore they will now go captive with the first who go captive;
      And the feasting and lounging will end.

 6:8"The Lord ADONAI has sworn by himself," says ADONAI, , the God Tzva'ot:
      "I abhor the pride of Ya`akov,
      And detest his fortresses.
      Therefore I will deliver up the city with all that is in it.

 6:9It will happen, if there remain ten men in one house,
      That they shall die.

6:10"When a man's relative carries him, even he who burns him, to bring bodies out of the house, and asks him who is in the innermost parts of the house, 'Is there yet any with you?' And he says, 'No;' then he will say, 'Hush! Indeed we must not mention the name of ADONAI.'

 6:11"For, behold, ADONAI commands, and the great house will be smashed to pieces,
      And the little house into bits.

 6:12Do horses run on the rocky crags?
      Does one plow there with oxen?

 But you have turned justice into poison,
      And the fruit of righteousness into bitterness;

 6:13You who rejoice in a thing of nothing, who say,
      'Haven't we taken for ourselves horns by our own strength?'

 6:6:14For, behold, I will raise up against you a nation, house of Yisra'el,"
      Says ADONAI, the God Tzva'ot;
      "And they will afflict you from the entrance of Chamat to the brook of the `Aravah."

Warning Through Visions

7:1Thus the Lord ADONAI showed me: and, behold, he formed locusts in the beginning of the shooting up of the latter growth; and, behold, it was the latter growth after the king's harvest. 7:2It happened that, when they made an end of eating the grass of the land, then I said, "Lord ADONAI, forgive, I beg you! How could Ya`akov stand? For he is small."

7:3ADONAI relented concerning this. "It shall not be," says ADONAI.

7:4Thus the Lord ADONAI showed me and, behold, the Lord ADONAI called for judgment by fire; and it dried up the great deep, and would have devoured the land. 7:5Then I said, "Lord ADONAI, stop, I beg you! How could Ya`akov stand? For he is small."

7:6ADONAI relented concerning this. "This also shall not be," says the Lord ADONAI.

7:7Thus he showed me and, behold, the Lord stood beside a wall made by a plumb line, with a plumb line in his hand. 7:8The LORD said to me, "`Amos, what do you see?"

I said, "A plumb line."

Then the Lord said, "Behold, I will set a plumb line in the midst of my people Yisra'el. I will not again pass by them any more. 7:9The high places of Yitzchak will be desolate, the sanctuaries of Yisra'el will be laid waste; and I will rise against the house of Yarov`am with the sword."

Amos Accused, Answers

7:10Then Amatzyah the kohen of Beit-El sent to Yarov`am king of Yisra'el, saying, "`Amos has conspired against you in the midst of the house of Yisra'el. The land is not able to bear all his words. 7:11For `Amos says, 'Yarov`am will die by the sword, and Yisra'el shall surely be led away captive out of his land.'"

7:12Amatzyah also said to `Amos, "You seer, go, flee away into the land of Y'hudah, and there eat bread, and prophesy there: 7:13but don't prophesy again any more at Beit-El; for it is the king's sanctuary, and it is a royal house!"

7:14Then `Amos answered Amatzyah, "I was no prophet, neither was I a prophet's son; but I was a herdsman, and a farmer of sycamore trees; 7:15and ADONAI took me from following the flock, and ADONAI said to me, 'Go, prophesy to my people Yisra'el.' 7:16Now therefore listen to the word of ADONAI: 'You say, Don't prophesy against Yisra'el, and don't preach against the house of Yitzchak.' 7:17Therefore thus says ADONAI: 'Your wife shall be a prostitute in the city, and your sons and your daughters shall fall by the sword, and your land shall be divided by line; and you yourself shall die in a land that is unclean, and Yisra'el shall surely be led away captive out of his land.'"

Basket of Fruit and Israel's Captivity

8:1Thus the Lord ADONAI showed me: behold, a basket of summer fruit.

8:2He said, "`Amos, what do you see?"

I said, "A basket of summer fruit."

Then ADONAI s said to me,

 "The end has come on my people Yisra'el.
      I will not again pass by them any more.
 8:3The songs of the temple will be wailings in that day," says the Lord ADONAI.
      "The dead bodies will be many. In every place they will throw them out with silence.

 8:4Hear this, you who desire to swallow up the needy,
      And cause the poor of the land to fail,
      8:5Saying, 'When will the new moon be gone, that we may sell grain?
      And the Shabbat, that we may market wheat,
      Making the efah small, and the shekel large,
      And dealing falsely with balances of deceit;
 8:6That we may buy the poor for silver,
      And the needy for a pair of shoes,
      And sell the sweepings with the wheat?'"

 8:7ADONAI has sworn by the pride of Ya`akov,
      "Surely I will never forget any of their works.

 8:8Won't the land tremble for this,
      And everyone mourn who dwells in it?

 Yes, it will rise up wholly like the River;
      And it will be stirred up and sink again, like the River of Egypt.

 8:9"It will happen in that day," says the Lord ADONAI,
      "That I will cause the sun to go down at noon,
      And I will darken the earth in the clear day.

 8:10I will turn your feasts into mourning,
      And all your songs into lamentation;

 And I will make you wear sackcloth on all your bodies,
      And baldness on every head.

 I will make it like the mourning for an only son,
      And the end of it like a bitter day.

 8:11Behold, the days come," says the Lord ADONAI,
      "That I will send a famine in the land,
      Not a famine of bread,
      Nor a thirst for water,
      But of hearing the words of ADONAI.

 8:12They will wander from sea to sea,
      And from the north even to the east;
      They will run back and forth to seek the word of ADONAI,
      And will not find it.

 8:13In that day the beautiful virgins
      And the young men will faint for thirst.

 8:8:14Those who swear by the sin of Shomron,
      And say, 'As your god, Dan, lives;'
      And, 'As the way of Be'er-Sheva lives;'
      They will fall, and never rise up again."

God's Judgment Unavoidable

9:1I saw the Lord standing beside the altar, and he said, "Strike the tops of the pillars, that the thresholds may shake; and break them in pieces on the head of all of them; and I will kill the last of them with the sword: there shall not one of them flee away, and there shall not one of them escape. 9:2Though they dig into She'ol, there my hand will take them; and though they climb up to heaven, there I will bring them down. 9:3Though they hide themselves in the top of Karmel, I will search and take them out there; and though they be hid from my sight in the bottom of the sea, there I will command the serpent, and it will bite them. 9:4Though they go into captivity before their enemies, there I will command the sword, and it will kill them. I will set my eyes on them for evil, and not for good. 9:5For the Lord, ADONAI of Hosts, is he who touches the land and it melts, and all who dwell in it will mourn; and it will rise up wholly like the River, and will sink again, like the River of Egypt. 9:6It is he who builds his chambers in the heavens, and has founded his vault on the earth; he who calls for the waters of the sea, and pours them out on the surface of the earth; ADONAI is his name. 9:7Are you not like the children of the Kushim to me, children of Yisra'el?" says ADONAI. "Haven't I brought up Yisra'el out of the land of Egypt, and the Pelishtim from Kaftor, and the Aram from Kir? 9:8Behold, the eyes of the Lord ADONAI are on the sinful kingdom, and I will destroy it from off the surface of the earth; except that I will not utterly destroy the house of Ya`akov," says ADONAI. 9:9"For, behold, I will command, and I will sift the house of Yisra'el among all the nations, as grain is sifted in a sieve, yet not the least kernel will fall on the earth. 9:10All the sinners of my people will die by the sword, who say, 'Evil won't overtake nor meet us.'

The Restoration of Israel

9:11In that day I will raise up the tent of David who is fallen, and close up its breaches, and I will raise up its ruins, and I will build it as in the days of old; 9:12that they may possess the remnant of Edom, and all the nations who are called by my name," says ADONAI who does this.

 9:13"Behold, the days come," says ADONAI,
      "That the plowman shall overtake the reaper,
      And the one treading grapes him who sows seed;
      And sweet wine will drip from the mountains,
      And flow from the hills.

 9:9:14I will bring back the captivity of my people Yisra'el,
      And they will rebuild the ruined cities, and inhabit them;
      and they will plant vineyards, and drink wine from them.

 They shall also make gardens,
      And eat the fruit of them.

 9:15I will plant them on their land,
      And they will no more be plucked up out of their land which I have given them,"
      says ADONAI your God.



[1-1] Hazael = “one who sees God.” A king of Syria. Before he became king, he was sent by his master, Ben-hadad, to the prophet Elisha, to seek a remedy for Ben-hadad's leprosy. He apparently later killed Ben-hadad, assumed the throne, and soon became engaged in a war with the kings of Judah and Israel for the possession of the city of Ramoth-gilead.



















































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