Glossary: T

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  Shofar A Glossary of
Unfamiliar Terms
Ten Commandments Tablets  
    Compiled from numerous source documents
by
Ari Levitt*
ThM, ThD, DMin, MBA, CNHP
 
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Abbreviations Used In This Glossary

abbr. = abbreviated

alt. = alternate

Ar. = Aramaic

esp. = especially

Gr. = Greek

Heb. = Hebrew

lit. = literally

n. = noun

pl. = plural

pron. = pronounced

prop. = properly

sg. = singular

usu. = usually

v. = verb

Yid. = Yiddish

Transliteration/Pronunciation GuideBooks of the BibleProper NamesTribes of IsraelThe Mishnah

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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Appendix Pronunciation [More]

t j

t’fillin
black leather boxes containing scrolls of Scripture passages, also called phylacteries. Sometimes during prayers one box is affixed to one’s hand and arm and the other to one’s forehead as a physical effort to obey the passage in Deuteronomy 6:8 (Exodus 13:1-16; Deuteronomy 6:4-9; 11:13-21)
 
ta’am ha’elyon
the “upper” mode of cantilation of the passage of the Ten Commandments
 
ta’anug
evil pleasure
 
ta’anugot
evil pleasures
 
ta’avah
evil desire/lust
 
ta’avot
lusts
 
Taanit
a section of the Talmud on Fasts … a fast day
 
aaanit chalom
a fast over a bad dream
 
taavah
lust
 
tachanun
a prayer of supplication
 
tacharut
competition
 
tachlis
purpose
 
tachrichim
(alt. tachrichin) burial shrouds
 
tachtiy
the depths (figuratively a pit, the womb) — low (parts, -er, -er parts, -est), nether (part)
 
tag
ornamental flourish or “tittle”
 
taharah
ritual purification of the deceased in preparation for burial … washing of the dead body
 
tahor
ritually pure or clean … able to enter the Beit HaMikdash or Mishkan
 
takhrikhim
shrouds prescribed by Jewish law
 
takhmos
night-hawk
 
takif
influential man
 
Tal
(Dew) The prayer for dew (in Eretz Yisrael) recited on first day of Passover
 
tallit
prayer shawl with ceremonial fringes on four corners (alt. talit, talis)
 
tallit katan (alt. talit)
a small prayer shawl; a special undershirt with four corners each bearing tzitziyot
 
talmid
disciple, student (fem. talmidah; pl. talmidim); a true talmid does not only want to know what the teacher knows, he/she wants to be what the teacher is.
 
talmid chacham
a scholar of the Torah
 
Talmud
the two commentaries on the Mishnah, one produced in the Holy Land about AD 275, the other in Babylonia about AD 500; the designation for both the Mishnah and the commentaries on it (Gemara). The Talmud is the collected legal and ethical discussions of the rabbis.
 
tam’ei
(alt. tameh, tameis, tamei) ritually impure or unclean (specifically by virtue of contact with the dead), not able to enter the able to enter the Beit HaMikdash or Mishkan
 
tamid
the daily sacrifice in the Sanctuary
 
tamim
faultless
 
Tammuz
tenth month on the Jewish civil calendar
 
tana
rabbi in the Mishnaic period (pl. tannaim, alt. tana’im)
 
Tanakh
(alt, Tanach, Tenach) the Hebrew Bible, consisting of Torah, Prophets, and Writings … an acronym formed from the initial letters of the Hebrew Torah, Nevi’im (Prophets), and Ketuvim (Writings)
 
tanshemet
horned owl
 
Targum
(Translation) Traditionally the name given the Aramaic translation of the Bible, read to the populace in Babylonian periods. The custom of reading services in Aramaic following the Hebrew goes back to hundreds of years before the great diaspora. Except for some interpolations and paraphrases, the Targum Bavli, also known as the Targum Onkelos, is a very faithful translation. Less faithful to the text are the Targum Yerushalmi and others of fragmentary character (pl. Targumim)
 
tarnegol
cock
 
Tashlich
traditional Rosh haShanah afternoon ceremony in which individuals symbolically cast their sins (crumbs) into a body of water … the casting away of sin
 
tata
papa
 
tav
mark
 
tavnit
pattern; copy
 
techinnah
petition; supplication
 
techiyah
resurrection
 
tefillah
(alt. tefilah) lit. prayer; also refers to the central group of prayers in each service, alternatively called the Amidah or Shemoneh Esre (pl. tefillos, tefillot)
 
Tefillah Zakah
(alt. Tefilah) “a prayer of purity” recited upon the advent of Yom Kippur before Kol Nidrey
 
tefillin
(alt. tefilin) black square leather boxes containing parchments with sections of the Torah (Shma etc.). Jewish men are obligated to wear them the forehead and arm during prayers every morning. (Of course if one sees the sunrise 45 times a day as an astronaut might, this may create problems.)
 
Tehillim
Psalms
 
tehom
abyss
 
tehom gedolah
a great abyss; chasm
 
tehorah
pure
 
tehorim
clean
 
Teki’ah
a shofar sound
 
tekufa
era; period
 
Tekufah
one of the four seasons of the year (pl. Tekufot)
 
tekumah
revival
 
telos
the point aimed at as a limit, i.e. (by implication) the conclusion of an act or state (termination, result, purpose); specifically an impost or levy (as paid); continual, custom, end (-ing), finally, uttermost
 
telunnah
murmuring
 
tema’im
unclean
 
temarim
palms
 
Tenakh
(alt. Tanach, Tenach) Tanakh
 
teretz
excuse
 
Teruah
an awakening blast on the Shofar
 
terumah
contribution
 
terumah haissa
portion; offering of the dough
 
terutz
excuse
 
teshukot
desires
 
teshuvah
(alt. teshuva) lit. turning or returning; repentance … repentance from sin, spiritual reawakening … desire to strengthen the connection between oneself and the sacred … turning toward God
 
Tetragrammaton
the four Hebrew letters hwhy usually transliterated YHWH or YHVH that form a biblical proper name of God
 
Tetzaveh
a portion in the Book of Exodus
 
teva
ark
 
teva
nature
 
tevel
world
 
Tevet
fourth month of the Jewish year
 
tevilah
(lit. immersion) the total immersing of one’s self in a mikvah (container of “living water”). Christian “baptism” is a based upon this concept, but has been changed from the practice followed by the early Messianic Believers. Whereas Christian “baptism” is performed upon the individual by another, generally a member of the clergy, tevilah is performed upon one's self by the individual, and may may or may not be observed by “official witnesses.”
 
Therapeutae
sternly ascetic Jewish party whose views and practices were kindred to the Essenes in Palestine
 
tevunah
wisdom
 
tief
deep and profound; erudite; keen
 
tiferet
splendor; beauty
 
tihur
purification
 
tikkun
restoration; repair
 
Tikkun Chatzot
(alt. Tikun) a prayer of lamentation over the destruction of the Sanctuary, recited at midnight
 
Tikkun Leil Shavuot
(alt. Tikun) lit. service of the night of Shavuot
 
tikkun olam (alt. tikun)
repairing our broken world
 
Tikkun Soferim (alt. Tikun) (alt. Sofrim)
the set of rules for the writing of a Torah Scroll
 
tikvah
hope
 
tikvateinu
our hope
 
timtum halev
hardening of the heart
 
tipesh
idiot
 
tipshus
foolery
 
tipus
type; pattern
 
tish
table
 
Tishah Be’av
The ninth day of the month of Av; a day of mourning for the destruction of the ancient Temple in Jerusalem
 
tishen
tables
 
Tishri (alt. Tishrei) (Ethanim)
first month of the Hebrew civil calendar (September-October)
 
Titkabel
a verse in the kadish, “Let the prayers of Israel be accepted.”
 
tizkoret
reminder
 
to’evah
abomination
 
tochnit
master plan
 
todah
thanks, thank you, the thanksgiving offering in the Sanctuary
 
toeva
abomination
 
tohorah
purification
 
tohorat mishpakhah
family purity
 
tohu vavohu
disorder; chaos
 
tohuw
to lie waste; a desolation (of surface), i.e. desert; figuratively a worthless thing; in vain
confusion, empty place, without form, nothing, (thing of) nought, vain, vanity, waste, wilderness
 
toitzaa
outcome
 
tokhechah
reproof
 
toldah
(alt. towledah) descent, i.e. family; (figuratively) history
birth, generations
 
toldot
genealogies
 
Torah
teaching or instruction, but usually erroneously translated “law” … the divine instruction of God.
    In its most narrow sense, the Five Books of Moshe (Moses), the Pentateuch — B’resheet (Genesis), Sh’mot (Exodus), Vayikra (Leviticus), B’midbar (Numbers), D’varim (Deuteronomy), called the “Written Torah” and hand-written on a parchment scroll.
   The Torah plus the Prophets (Nevi’im) and Writings (K’tuvim) are together called the TaNaKh (TNK), Tenach (alt. Tanach, Tanakh, Tenakh), the Hebrew Bible, or the so-called “Old Testament.”
   In a broad sense, the whole written Word of God is the Torah, including both the Tanakh and the B’rit Chadashah (New Testament), since all contain His divine instruction.
   In its broadest sense, “Torah” is all of Judaism, which flows from those Books.
   Additional material called the “Oral Torah” is considered in varying degrees as authoritative in traditional Judaism. Uncapitalized, the work can be understood as “principle.”
 
Torah-observant
walking in yielded obedience to all the teaching of the Scriptures (both the Torah and the Apostolic Writings) as Yeshua insntructed us (John 14:15; Matthew 5 :17-20 ); in traditional Judaism this includes obeying the complex instructions of the Talmud as well.
 
torud
completely absorbed and involved
 
Tosefta
(alt. Tocefta) Supplement; anthology of tannaitic text parallel to Mishnah, but outside Mishnaic canon, and more expansive. Rabbi Nehemiah, second century, began the work; in the third century it was continued by Hiyya ben Abba and Oshaiah
 
tous ritztzuy
reconciliation
 
tov
good
 
tov l’teshuva
fruit worthy of repentance
 
tovim
good ones
 
tovot
good things
 
toyus
error
 
treif
(alt. trefah) lit. torn apart; food that is not ritually fit … the opposite of kosher
 
trombeniks
gluttons
 
Tru’ah
a shofar sound
 
Trumah
a heave offering, contribution … the seventh portion in the Book of Exodus
 
Trumpets, Feast of
the modern Rosh Ha-Shanah, the first day of Tishri, the seventh month of the Jewish calendar, celebrated (unbiblically) as the Jewish New Year
 
tsaphoon
hidden
 
tsemach xmc
branch
 
tshuka
yearning
 
tsur
rock
 
Tu Bishvat
fifteenth day of the month of Shevat; a minor holiday known as the New Year of the Trees, observed by planting trees
 
tugah
sadness
 
tum’a
uncleanness; impurity
 
tza’ar
pain and suffering
 
tzad
side
 
tzaddik
righteous man
 
Tzaddik
(alt. Tzadik) Chasidic sages were so called; they were often raised by their followers to the status of direct intermediaries with God, super-human miracle workers … a just man, righteous, upright (pl. Tzaddikim, alt. Tzadikim)
 
tzaddikim
righteous ones
 
tzafon
north
 
Tzafun
the phase of the Seder ceremony in which the hidden afikoman is eaten
 
tzar
narrow
 
tzarah
trouble
 
Tzarah Gedolah
Great Tribulation
 
tzarut ayin
envyings
 
tzavva’a
will
 
tzechok
laughter
 
tzedakah
contribution
 
tzedakah
(alt. tsedakah) lit. justice or righteousness; the Hebrew word we use for charity and charitable acts
 
tzedek
righteousness
 
Tzedokim
(alt. Tzedukim)Sadducees. Religio-political sect of Judaism in the late Second Temple period that focused on priestly functions and the sacrificial system … their views and practices were opposed to those of the Pharisees. They denied the authority of oral tradition, the resurrection of the dead, and the existence of angels.
 
tzelamim
idols
 
tzelem
image
 
tzevi’ut
hypocrisy
 
tzevua
(pl. tzevuim) hypocrite
 
tzfarde’im
frogs
 
tzidkat
righteousness
 
Tzidkatcha Tzedek
verses recited after the minchah prayer on Shabbat
 
Tziduk Hadin
a prayer of accepting God’s Judgment
 
tzitzis  
(alt. tzitzit) ceremonially knotted fringes to be worn on all four-cornered garments (pl. Tzitziyot)
 
tzive’ot zarim
armies of the aliens
 
tziveot haparashim
troops of cavalry-men
 
tznius
modesty
 
tzom; tzomot
fast; fastings
 
tzon
flock
 
tzorich iyun
unresolved puzzlement
 
tzoros
troubles
 
tzufloigen
dazed
 
tzufriedenkait
contentment
 
tzushtel
comparison
 

Page last updated on Wednesday, 03 August 2016 11:21 AM
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