Glossary: S

h¹b
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  Shofar A Glossary of
Unfamiliar Terms
Ten Commandments Tablets  
    Compiled from numerous source documents
by
Ari Levitt*
ThM, ThD, DMin, MBA, CNHP
 
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Abbreviations Used In This Glossary

abbr. = abbreviated

alt. = alternate

Ar. = Aramaic

esp. = especially

Gr. = Greek

Heb. = Hebrew

lit. = literally

n. = noun

pl. = plural

pron. = pronounced

prop. = properly

sg. = singular

usu. = usually

v. = verb

Yid. = Yiddish

Transliteration/Pronunciation GuideBooks of the BibleProper NamesTribes of IsraelThe Mishnah

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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Appendix Pronunciation [More]

S s X

s’lihot
liturgical prayers of teshuvah (repentance)
 
s’michah
ordination
 
s’phirah
 (pl. s’phirot)
emanation(s) from the ultimate, infinite, indefinable Godhead toward the palpable world; aspects of God 
sachar
reward
 
Sadducees
see Tzedokim
 
sadeh
field
 
sakanot mavet
mortal danger
 
sakkim
sackcloth
 
Samael
the devil
 
samchut
authority
 
sandak
person who holds the baby during the Berit Milah ceremony
 
Sanhedrin
the High Court in Jerusalem; the Israel Supreme Court during the Second Temple period; the legislative and judicial parliament supposedly descendant from the seventy elders appointed by Moshe
 
sanhedriyot
local councils/bet din courts
 
sar
a head person (of any rank or class)
captain (that had rule), chief (captain), general, governor, keeper, L‑rd, taskmaster, prince, ruler, steward
 
Sar Shalom
Prince of Peace, Mashiach
 
sarig
shoot; branch
 
sarisim
eunuchs
 
sasson
joy
 
savlanut
patient endurance
 
savta
grandmother
 
scapegoat
see Azazel
 
schnorrer’s
beggar’s
 
Scribes
the Sages who transcribed and interpreted the Torah and its Laws
 
sdeh krav
battlefield
 
se’irim
goats
 
sebomai
(Gk.) to revere, i.e. adore
devout, religious, worship
 
Second Temple
the house of worship built at Jerusalem after the return of Israel from the Babylonian Captivity
 
seder
lit. order; ritual for the home celebration of the first (and second) evening(s) of Pesach … the ceremony to commemorate the Exodus from Egypt on Passover Eve; the ritual Passover meal which is observed in a specific order
 
Seder Avodah (alt. Abodah)
the “order of Service” that the Kohen Gadol performs in the Sanctuary on the day of Atonement
 
seder plate
a shallow, usually compartmentalized dish that holds the symbolic foods of the Passover seder
 
sefer
book
 
sefer katan
small book
 
sefer keritut
bill of divorcement
 
Sefer Torah (alt. Sifrei)
Torah scroll (pl. Sefarim)
 
sefirah
counting
 
S’firat HaOmer
(Counting the Omer) is the period of 50 days from Yom HaBikkurim until Shavuot
 
Sefirah
the “days of counting” between the Passover and Pentecost
 
seichel
good sense; understanding
 
selicha
forgiveness
 
selichot
penitential prayers
 
Selichot Service
a service of preparation for the High Holy Days, usually held at midnight on the Saturday preceding Rosh haShanah
 
semichah
ordination, ordained rabbis (pl. semuchim)
 
Sephardi
of Oriental Jewish communities (pl. Sephardim)
 
Sephardim
(adj. Sephardic) a cultural branch of Judaism; descendants of the Jews who fled Spain and Portugal after the Edict of Expulsion in 1492. They share a common language known as Ladino (a variant of Spanish), as opposed to northern European Jews (Ashkenazi), who speak Yiddish (a Germanic dialect).
 
seqilah
stoning
 
seraphim
fiery angels
 
sereifah
death by burning
 
seudah
banquet
 
seudah
feast
 
Seudah Mafseket
(alt. Hemafseket) the “meal of cessation” before a fast
 
Seudah shel Mitzvah
a festive meal that honors the observance of a mitzvah; a meal prescribed by the Torah or the Sages, same as Seudat Mitzvah
 
Seudah Shelishit
(alt. Shlishit) lit. third meal; a light meal eaten late on Shabbat afternoon … the third meal eaten on the Sabbath
 
Seudat Chavurah
(alt. Havra’ah, Chaburah) lit. meal of condolence; prepared by friends of the mourners and eaten in the house of mourning immediately following a funeral
 
seudot
banquet dinners
 
sevivon
dreidel (four-sided top used in a Chanukkah game)
 
sfeka deyoma
doubt as to the exact date of the day
 
sh’lamim
peace offerings
 
sha’ah; shaah
hour; time
 
sha’atnez
a cloth combining wool and linen
 
sha’ot
hours
 
shaar hatzarut
gate of narrowness
 
Shabbat
(alt. Shabbos) Sabbath. The seventh day of the week. God’s appointed day of rest, a holy convocation. Rest, cease. (Sephardic pronunciation)
 
Shabbat Bereshit
(alt. Bereishit) the first Sabbath after Simchat Torah on which the portion of Bereishit (Genesis) is read
 
Shabbat Chazon
the Sabbath before the Ninth of Av
 
Shabbat HaGadol
The Great Shabbat precedes Pesach. It is the day the lambs are selected and brought into the home for a week of close observation to determine their suitability as the Pesach sacrifice. It was on this day that Yeshua entered Jerusalem (the “house” of Israel) for one week’s close observation by Israel of His suitability to be their Paschal Lamb, marked by his “triumphant entry” into Jerusalem.
 
Shabbat HaHodesh
the fourth Shabbat of the Purim sequence; precedes the new year
 
Shabbat Mevarchim
the Sabbath on which the forthcoming month is blessed
 
Shabbat Nachamu
the Sabbath after the Ninth of Av
 
Shabbat Parah
the third Shabbat of the Purim sequence. Refer to the ordinance of the Parah Adumah (Red Heifer) in B’Midbar (Numbers) 19:1-22
Purification before the feasts of Pesach/Hag HaMatzot.
 
Shabbat Shirah
“the Sabbath of Song”, the Sabbath on which “the song of the sea” is read in the portion of Beshalach
 
Shabbat Shuvah
lit. Sabbath of Return; the Sabbath between Rosh haShanah and Yom Kippur
 
Shabbat Zachor
The first Shabbat of the Purim sequence; the Sabbath immediately preceding Purim
 
Shabbaton
Seven High Sabbaths … sabbath program of study and celebration (pl. Shabbatonim)
 
Shabbos
(alt. Shabbat) The Sabbath (Ashkenazic pronunciation)
 
shachah
to depress, i.e. prostrate (specifically reflexive in homage to royalty or God); bow (self) down, crouch, fall down (flat), humbly beseech, do (make) obeisance, do reverence, make to stoop, worship
 
Shacharit
(alt. Shararit) Morning Prayer. From Hebrew for “dawn” … Morning prayer service
 
shachat
corruption
 
Shaddai
the Almighty
 
shadkhan
marriage-broker
 
shaichus
closeness; friendship; intimacy
 
shakan
to reside or permanently stay (lit. or figuratively); abide, continue, (cause to, make to) dwell (-er), have habitation, inhabit, lay, place, (cause to) remain, rest, set (up); see Shekhinah
 
shakhor
black
 
shakran
liar (pl. shakranim)
 
shalakh
cormorant
 
shalem b’guf
healthy
 
shaliach
(pl. shliachim) an agent sent with the full authority of the person doing the sending; Apostle, abassador
 
Shaliach Tzibur
the presenter of the prayers in the Synagogue, the Cantor
 
shalitim
rulers
 
shalom
lit. peace … denotes all the fullness of harmony, well-being, and comfort needed for one to be at complete peace
 
Shalom Zachor
first Friday following birth
 
shalosh
three
 
shalosh paamim
three times
 
Shalosh Regalim
see Pilgrim Festival
 
Shalosh Seudot
the three festive meals prescribed for the Sabbath
 
shamash
(alt. shammash)
lit. servant; term for the ninth candle used to light the other candles in the Chanukiah … the beadle in the Synagogue; equivalent to Gk. deaconos (translated "deacon" in the B'rit Hadasha)
 
shammai
(alt. shammai) school of …
 
shanah; shanim
year; years
 
sharsherot
chains / fetters
 
shatnez
mixture of wool and linen material which we are proscribed from wearing (Deut 22:5-12)
 
Sha'ul
(1) the first king of Israel.
(2) Most famous of all Messianic Rabbis, Yeshua’s Shliach sent primarily to the Goyim and scribe of approximately half of the Apostolic Writings.
 
Shavuot
(alt. Shavuoth; sg. Shavuah) lit. “weeks” — The feast of Weeks or Pentecost (50 days); one of the three Pilgrim Feasts. The 50th day from Yom Habikkurim memorializes the receiving of the Torah, and the beginning of the wheat harvest. Also, it represents the betrothal between Israel and ADONAI. It was on this day that Ruach HaKodesh came to permanently indwell the Miqra (Acts 2) as the “down-payment” or “bride price.” (also Hag Hakatzir)
 
shawkling
ritual swaying while davening; believed by many to be reminiscent of swaying in the saddle of a camel while traveling (more information here)
 
shayach
conceivable
 
shchenim
neighbors
 
she’arim
gates
 
she’elah
question
 
She’elat Geshamim
the petition for rain
 
She’elot u-Teshuvot
questions and responses to queries on matters of Jewish law by rabbis and sages
 
she’erit
remnant; remainder
 
shebalev
inwardly
 
shebet
a stick (for punishing, writing, fighting, ruling, walking, etc.) or (figuratively) a clan
correction, dart, rod, scepter, staff, tribe
 
shebuah
(alt. shabuwa) lit. sevened, i.e. a week (specifically of years)
seven, week
 
Shechinah
(alt. Shekhinah) glorious presence of God
 
shechita
the slaughtering of animals for meat as prescribed by the Torah
 
shed
demon / evil spirit
 
shedim
demons
 
sheelah
question
 
sheelot
kashes; questions
 
sheerit
remnant
 
shefach dahm
the shedding of blood
 
Shehecheyanu
(lit. [God] who has kept us alive) this is the blessing for beginnings and other happy occasions in people’s lives, such as birth and marriage. It is also said at candlelighting, Kiddush and certain other specific times during festival observances … a blessing over mitzvot which are performed once a year or over new fruit in its season
 
shein
beautiful
 
sheker
falsehood; lies
 
sheketz
abomination
 
sheketz tameh
unclean creature
 
Shekhinah
(alt. Shechinah) God’s Presence in the world.
Aram. and late Heb., a word not in Scripture, but used by later Jews and by Christians to express the visible divine Presence, especially when resting between the cherubim over the mercy seat (from shakan)
 
sheleimah
complete
 
shelemut
perfection; completeness
 
Sheloshim
the second period of mourning; thirty-day mourning period
 
shem
name (pl. shemot)
 
shem kodesh or shem hakodesh
religious name; most Jewish males have two names — a religious name, called the shem kodesh (or shem hakodesh), and a secular name, called the kinnui in Hebrew. The religious name is a Hebrew name, and the secular name is in whatever vernacular language is in use. Observant American Jews today (for example) have a religious Hebrew name, and a secular English name. Among the Jews of Eastern Europe, Yiddish was the everyday or secular language, so they had a religious Hebrew name and a secular Yiddish name, the kinnui. In France, the secular name is in French; in ancient Babylonia, the kinnui was in Babylonian; etc.
 
Shem Hameforash
the Ineffable Divine Name
 
shem tov
good name
 
Shema
(alt. Shemab; Sh’ma) lit. hear … The most widely known Jewish confession of faith in one God: “Shema Yisrael Adonai Elohenu Adonai Echad” (Hear, O Israel: the Lord is our God, the Lord is One). (see Deut. 6:4-9)
 
shemen
oil
 
shemen mishchah
anointing oil
 
shemesh
sun
 
Shemini Atzeret
Literally: the eighth day of assembly; conclusion of Sukkot … The day following Sukkot and the end of that festival
 
shemitah
fallow
 
Shemoneh Esre
(alt. Esray, Shmoneh Esreh) Eighteen … the number of blessings originally in the important part of the daily prayers recited in silence while worshipers stand — hence this name is applied to all such standing prayers, although the daily service now has nineteen and other services seven blessings. Combines adoration with entreaty. Also called Amidah (standing) or simply Tefillah (prayer).
 
shemot
(sg. shem) names; the name of the second book of the Torah, and the name of the first parashah (weekly portion) in that book 
 
shenayim
two
 
Sheol
abode of the dead; afterlife; the netherworld
 
sherut
service in the Beis HaMikdash
 
sheva
seven
 
Sheva Berachot
(alt. Birchot) lit. seven blessings; these are recited or chanted at a wedding ceremony prior to the sharing of a cup of wine by the bride and groom
 
shevach; shevakh
praise; commendation
 
shevarim
a shofar sound
 
shevarim
oxen
 
Shevat
Fifth month of Jewish year
 
shevet
tribe
 
shevu’ah
oath
 
shevuot
oaths
 
sheynah
sleep
 
sheynit
a second time
 
shfakhot
maid servants
 
shichrut
drunkenness
 
shiebud
obligation
 
shifcha
(alt. shifchah) bond maid
 
shiflut
lowliness
 
shiggot haAm
unintentional sins of the people
 
shikkor
drunkard
 
shikkorim
drunkards
 
shilton
rule
 
shin
next-to-last letter of the Hebrew alef-beit (first letter of Shaddai)
 
Shir Chadash
New Song
 
shirayim
Rebbe’s remainders
 
shiryon kaskasim
coat of scale armor
 
Shitre Erusin
A betrothal contract
 
shiur
lesson; Torah talk (pl. shiurim)
 
shiva
seven; the first period of mourning; seven-day mourning period, the first day of which is the day of burial
 
shivah haben
child of the week
 
shivim
seventy
 
shkoyach
well done
 
shleimut
perfection; completion
 
shliach שליח
(pl. shliachim/shluchim שליחים/שלוחים) emissary, one sent forth with the full power and authority of the sender; Apostle; today’s ambassadors from Israel to other countries or to the United Nations are sometimes referred to as Shliachim in Hebrew.
 
Shlichus
(alt. Schlicot) Divine Mission
 
shlishit
third
 
shlita
control
 
shlitah atzmi
self-control
 
shloshah
three
 
shluchim
emissaries of the Rebbe; Melech HaMashiach (sg. shliach)
 
Shmad
Anti-Mashiach apostasy; apostate; destructive departure
 
shmattes
tatters; rags
 
Shmitah
Release
the seventh year in which the land lies fallow and debts are released or annulled … the Sabbatical year at the end of each seven year cycle
 
Shmo
His Name
 
shmonah asar
eighteen
 
Shmuel
a Sage of the Talmud
 
shnayim
two
 
Shneym Asar
Twelve
 
shochet
ritual slaughterer, required by Jewish dietary laws for the preparation of kosher meat
 
shochvim es zachar
homosexuals
 
shoded
robber (pl. shodedim)
 
shofar
trumpet made from a ram’s horn used as warning, call to arms, and in celebration. Blown on Rosh haShanah and during the month of Elul. When Yeshua returns it will be with the “sound of the Shofar.”
 
Shofar Hagadol
The Great Trumpet
 
shofetim
judges
 
Shofetim
(alt. Shofitim) Judges; Book of the Bible … a portion in the Book of Deuteronomy
 
soin
already
 
shomayim
heaven
 
Shome’a Tefillah
(alt. Tefilah) “The One Who hears prayer …” one of the eighteen benedictions of the Amidah
 
shomer
lit. guardian; on guard … person who remains with the deceased so that the body is never left alone prior to burial
 
shomer masoret
religious devotion
 
shomrim
guards
 
shoresh
root
 
shoshvin
the chosson’s (bridegroom’s) best man
 
shot
whip
 
shoteh
fool
 
shoter
law official
 
Shovavim Tat
a series of winter weeks whose Mondays and Thursdays are observed as fast days
 
shprach
diction
 
shrekliche
terrible
 
shtaig
working my way up; advancing; progressing
 
shtark
steadfastly
 
shtats
imposing; impressive
 
shtein
stop
 
shter
bother
 
shtetl
Jewish village
 
shtetlach
towns
 
shtey karnayim
two horns
 
shtiklech
misconduct ;
 
shtreimel
expensive hat
 
shuckle
to sway during prayer
 
shud
misfortune
 
shul
synagogue
 
shulchan
table
 
Shulchan Aruch
code of law applicable to today … the Book of codified Jewish Law, by Rabbi Yosef Karo
 
Shulchan Orech
table set for meal … one of the fifteen phases of the Seder ceremony
 
shulchanot
tables
 
Shushan Purim
Purim celebration on Adar 15 by cities walled at the time of Joshua
 
shuttafim
partners
 
shuttafut
partnership
 
shvakh
commendation
 
shvateem; shvatim
tribes
 
shver
complex
 
Sicarii
a fanatic group of Zealots (literally meaning “cut throats”) as they were involved in political assassination of both Jews and Romans
 
sichlut
foolishness
 
Siddur
(alt. Sidur; pl. Siddurim) prayer book; the set order of prayers … daily and Sabbath prayer book
 
Sidra
Bible portion of the week, read on Sabbath (pl. Sedarim, alt. Sidrot)
 
Sifra (alt. Sifre)
Halakhic midrashim to Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy
 
sikhliyut
rationality
 
Siloam
a pool of water in Jerusalem
 
siman
sign; indication
 
simcha
joy
 
simchah
lit. joy; a happy event
 
Simchat Torah
Literally: joy of the Torah; holiday marking the conclusion of the yearly cycle of Torah readings and the beginning of the new cycle; the final fall holiday
 
sin’ah
hatred
 
sinas chinom
baseless hatred
 
sirah
boat
 
sitnah
accusation
 
Sivan
Ninth month of the Jewish year
 
sivlot
sufferings of; sevalot pl.
 
Siyum
the completion of the study of a Talmudic tractate. Sod
mystery
 
skikuy
drink
 
smolit
left
 
sochen
steward/estate manager
 
sodot
mysteries
 
sofer
a specially trained scribe; Torah-teacher; rabbi (pl. soferim, sofrim)
 
soimech
confident; putting their trust and being dependent
 
soivel
bearing with
 
soneh
hater
 
soreg
barrier of the holy precinct
 
sorrut
rebelliousness / insubordination
 
sotah
a woman suspected of adultery
 
soterim
policemen
 
stam
elementary
 
stater
coin
 
sterntichel
kerchief
 
Sukkot
(alt. Sukot) booths, temporary dwellings; name of the festival that commemorates the Israelites’ wanderings in the desert after leaving Egypt … the Feast of Tabernacles (Booths) … One of three Pilgrim Feasts (sg. Sukkah, Sukah)
 
sunagoge
(Gk.) an assemblage of persons; specifically a Jewish “synagogue” (either the place or the meeting); by analogy a Christian “church” meeting; assembly, congregation, synagogue
 
sus
horse (pl. susim)
 
synagogue
a place constructed and fully dedicated for gathering and studying. After the destruction of the Temple, synagogues became a place of corporate worship
 

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