Glossary: M

h¹b
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  Shofar A Glossary of
Unfamiliar Terms
Ten Commandments Tablets  
    Compiled from numerous source documents
by
Ari Levitt*
ThM, ThD, DMin, MBA, CNHP
 
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Abbreviations Used In This Glossary

abbr. = abbreviated

alt. = alternate

Ar. = Aramaic

esp. = especially

Gr. = Greek

Heb. = Hebrew

lit. = literally

n. = noun

pl. = plural

pron. = pronounced

prop. = properly

sg. = singular

usu. = usually

v. = verb

Yid. = Yiddish

Transliteration/Pronunciation GuideBooks of the BibleProper NamesTribes of IsraelThe Mishnah

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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Appendix Pronunciation [More]

m

ma’al
betrayal
 
ma’amad ha’banim
the standing as sons
 
ma’aminim
believers
 
ma’arav
ambush
 
ma’arav
west
 
ma’aseh haemunah
work of faith
 
ma’aseh tov
good deed
 
ma’asei haChoshech
works of darkness
 
ma’aser
tithe (a tenth portion) given to the Kohen, the Levite, or the poor (pl. Ma’asrot; alt. maasros)
 
ma’asim
works
 
ma’asim hamitzvot
works of the commandments
 
ma’asim hara’im
evil deeds
 
ma’asim metim
dead works
 
ma’asim tovim
good deeds; works
 
ma’avak
struggle
 
ma’ayanot
springs; sources
 
ma’on
permanent residence
 
ma’ot chittim
money for wheat; financial contributions
 
Maamad
“Station”
groups of lay people who assisted the Levites at the daily sacrifices one week a year
 
maamadot
contributions
 
maamin Meshichi
Messianic believer
 
maariv
evening prayer service … evening prayers after sunset
 
maasros
(alt. ma’aser) tithe
 
mabbul
flood
 
machah
to stroke or rub; by implication to erase; also to smooth (as if with oil), i.e. grease or make fat; also to touch, i.e. reach to
abolish, blot out, destroy, full of marrow, put out, reach unto, utterly, wipe (away, out)
 
machalifei hakesafim
moneychangers
 
machaloket
controversy
 
machaloket
division of dissension
 
machanot
encamping armies
 
machla
illness
 
machlokot
divisions of dissension
 
machmir
stickler
 
machovim
sorrows
 
machsh’vot
thoughts
 
machshavah
thought
 
machshelah
ruin
 
machshiv
respect
 
machsor
shortage; want
 
Machzor
(Repetition) High Holy Day prayer book. In some Orthodox synagogues, a special prayer book
also known as a machzor is used on the Pilgrimage Festivals
 
madduchei shav
false enticement; delusion
 
madon
strife; quarrel
 
mafte’ach
key
 
Maftir
Last part of Torah reading on a given Shabbos or festival … the man who is “called up” to the reading of the concluding passage
 
Magen Avot
a short summary of the Sabbath amidah prayer recited on Sabbath Eve after the silent prayer
 
maggid
darshan; preacher, generally itinerant, and popular because of his clever parables … narration
 
Maggid of Mezritch
Reb Dov Ber of Mezritch; main disciple of the Ba’al Shem Tov and leader of the Chassidic movement after him; also a disciple of the Pnei Yehoshua; born 1704; died 19 Kislev, 1772; mentor of the whole next generation of Chassidic Rebbes.
 
Mah Nishtanah
Four Questions; at the beginning of the Passover Seder, the youngest child traditionally asks the “Four Questions” which prompt the leader of the Seder to explain the significance of Passover to the celebrants
 
makhaneh
camp
 
makhar
tomorrow
 
makkah
plague
 
makor
fountain
 
malach
angel (pl. malachim)
 
malbush
clothing
 
male no’am
full of pleasantness
 
malkah
queen
 
malkosh
spring rain
 
malkot
the penalty of lashing
 
Malkut Shamayim
The Kingdom of Heaven
 
malon
inn
 
malshin
informer; accuser
 
mamashus
real worth
 
mamlechot
kingdoms
 
mammon
ill-gained money
 
manhigim
leaders
 
manhigut
leadership
 
manhigut ruchanit
spiritual leadership / administration
 
mamzer
bastard, child of incest, illegitimate child
  1. bastard
  2. mixed population (fig.)
  3. born of a Jewish father and a heathen mother or visa versa
     
manoach
resting place
 
maot chitim
(alt. maoz chittin) lit. wheat money … money collected prior to Passover to assist the needy to celebrate the holiday and to buy special Passover foods
 
maoz
fortress
 
Maoz Tsur
cest-known Chanukkah song. An English version of the song is entitled “Rock of Ages.”
 
mareh
vision
 
maror
hitter, ground horseradish … a bitter herb such as horseradish, symbolizing the bitter plight of the enslaved Israelites; one of the symbolic foods used on the seder plate
 
marot
visions
 
Marranoes
forcibly converted Jews in Spain
 
marut
authority; rule
 
marzipan
a confection made of almond paste and sugar and molded into small shapes, usually of fruits and vegetables
 
masah
trial (pl. masot)
 
Mashgiach Ruchani
Spiritual Overseer
 
Mashiach
(alt. Moshiach) Messiah, anointed, an anointed one. In Israel three classes of persons were anointed for their office of service: prophets, priests, and kings. Yeshua HaMashiach is all three: Prophet, Priest, and King, hence The Anointed One
 
mashkeh
drink
 
maskana
outcome
 
maso panim
favoritism; partiality
 
masoret
tradition
 
Masoretic Text
the accepted Hebrew text of scriptures, the first Hebrew writing to contain vowel points as an aid to pronunciation, developed in the 9th century C.E.
 
masot
trials / temptations (sg. masah)
 
matanah
gift (pl. matanot)
 
matanot tovot
good gifts
 
matarah
objective
 
mateh
deceiver
 
matnat hachesed
free gift of grace
 
Matnat HaTzedakah
the gift of righteousness
 
matnat kesef
gift of money
 
matsevot
gravestones
 
matsli’ach
successful
 
mattah
below
 
mattan torah
(alt. matan) the giving of the law or instruction
 
mattanah
free gift
 
mattanot le-evyonim
giving to the poor
 
Mattityahu
Matthew; The Gospel According to Matthew; first book of the B;’rit Chadasha presenting Yeshua HaMashiach in his role as HaMelech
 
matzah
(alt. matzo, pl. matzot) “without leaven”; a flat bread made without adding leavening (yeast or baking powder). Called the “bread of affliction.” Unleavened bread … The unleavened bread eaten in recollection of the hurried departure from Egypt; the eating of matzah is obligatory only at the seder (pl. Matzot)
 
matzo tash
(Yid.)  a baglike fabric container used for the three ritual wafers of unleavened bread at the seder
 
matzpun
conscience
 
matzpun naki
clear conscience
 
mavet
death
 
mavo
introduction
 
mayim
water
 
mayim hayim
living water
 
mazal tov
good luck; congratulations
 
mazikim
malicious spirits
 
me’ah vchamishim ushloshah
one hundred and fifty three
 
me’onot
dwelling places; permanent residences; homes
 
me’ushar
blessedness
 
meah kevasim
a hundred sheep
 
meayen
engaged in research
 
mechabed
honor
 
mechila
pardon; forgiveness
 
Mechilta
Halakhic midrash to Exodus
 
mechitzah
the dividing partition
 
medakdeke
painstakingly thorough
 
Medieval
relating to or characteristic of the Middle Ages
 
mefakkechim
stewards; supervisors
 
mefarsem
make known
 
megadef
reviler (pl. megadefim)
 
megareia
weakened
 
megillah
(alt. megilah) lit. scroll; there are five megillot in the Bible. The one we read on Sukkot is Ecclesiastes, on Purim is Esther, on Pesach is Song of Songs, on Shavuot is Ruth, and on Tishah Be’av is Lamentations (pl. megillot)
 
meid
provide testimony; attest
 
mekabel
receiving; accepting
 
mekanne
jealous; envious
 
mekhonen
founder
 
mekom linah
guest room
 
mekom megurim
dwelling place
 
mekor
basis
 
mekor
passage; citation
 
melach
salt
 
melachah
work
 
melammed
instructor
 
melech
king (pl. melachim)
 
melitz echad
oone mediator
 
melo
plentitude
 
memayet
precluded; excluded
 
memshalah
government; dominion
 
mena’afim
adulterers
 
Meni
pagan moon goddess
 
menorah
the Lamp of the Sanctuary … a 7-branched candelabra representing the lampstand that stood in the Holy Place within the Temple … a version with eight branches plus the shamash (a Chanukkiah) is used during Chanukka, in celebration of the Maccabean victory over the Greeks and the rededication of the Temple (pl. Menorot)
 
menuchah
(alt. menuhan) resting place
 
meorer
point out; rekindle, stimulate; motivate; shtarken
 
mered
revolt; uprising
 
merirut lev
bitterness
 
merivah
strife
 
merkavot
chariots
 
mesader
arrange; place in succession
 
meshabed
caused to be obligated
 
meshalim
parables
 
meshalle’ach
sender
 
mesharet
minister; servant
 
mesharetim
ministers; servants
 
meshichei sheker
false Mashiachs
 
meshubad
obligated
 
meshummad
apostate
 
mesibot
parties
 
mesim
deceased ones
 
mesiras nefesh
self sacrifice
 
Mesorah
the traditional essential requirements in the writing of a Torah Scroll
 
Messiah
English transliteration of Hebrew Mashiach or Moshiach, meaning “The Anointed One” of G‑d who was to come to fill all three offices for which one must receive anointing; prophet, priest, and king; the promised Redeemer
 
Messianic Community
the called-out community of Believers in Messiah; used to refer to the entire Body of Messiah as a whole, as well as the local congregation. I use the terms Miqra, Messianic Community, and Body of Messiah interchangeably.
 
Messianic hatafah
preaching Mashiach
 
mesupak
uncertain; doubting
 
metohar
purified
 
metoharim
clean
 
metsakhim
foreheads
 
metzorah
a leper (pl. metzoraim)
 
mevugar
mature; adult (pl. mevugarim
 
meyayesh
despairing
 
mezarez
a spur into action
 
mezimma
evil design; intrigue
 
mezuzah
(lit. doorpost) a ritual object consisting of a casing and a klaf that is put on the doorpost(s) of the house (pl. mezuzot)
 
michshol
stumbling block (pl. michsholim)
 
michyah
subsistence .
 
midah hatov
the attribute of virtue
 
midas chasidus
quality of piety
 
Midat Hadin
the Divine Attribute of Justice
 
midbar
wilderness
 
midrash
(1) homiletical interpretation of the Scriptures; exegesis; commentary (pl. Midrashim)
(2) a collection of works compiled between the third and twelfth centuries that seeks out underlying truths and meanings of the Bible; they are the result of the process of delving into the ramifications of a biblical verse and of the ancient rabbis’ reading “between the lines” of Scripture
 
mifkad
census
 
migdal
tower
 
mikdash me’at
lit. a small sanctuary; refers to the home
 
mikhla
fold [enclosure]
 
mikvah
(alt. miqvah) a pool of “living” water conforming to certain dimensions and specifications, used for legal and spiritual purposes … also called by the Latin term “ritularium” … the ritual bathing (immersion) in the pool … Christian “baptism” is a based upon this concept, but has been changed from the practice followed by the early Messianic Believers.
 
milah
circumcision
 
milchamot
wars
 
mimeila
consequently; as a result
 
minchah
from an unused root mean. to apportion, i.e. bestow; a donation; euphem. tribute; specifically a sacrificial offering (usually bloodless and voluntary)
gift, oblation, (meat) offering, present, sacrifice … afternoon prayer; name of Temple sacrifice … evening prayers during the day … a gift offering in the Sanctuary … an offering made of flour and oil (pl. Menachot)
 
minhag
custom (pl minhagim)
 
minim
apostates, heretics; a derogatory term for early (1st and early 2nd century) Jewish Believers in Messiah
 
minut
heresy; apostasy
 
minyan
quorum of ten adult Jews necessary for public prayer
 
miqra
(alt. miqrah, mikra, mikrah) something or someone “called out” … a public meeting (the act, the persons, or the place); also a rehearsal, assembly, calling, convocation, reading … equivalent to Greek ekklesia, called-out ones, erroneously (and we believe deliberately and anti-Semitically) translated “church” in the KJV, which error has continued in later English translations of the Scriptures. There is no valid linguistic reason for translating the word “ekklesia” or for referring to the people of Mashiach as “the church” — it is only a Gentile tradition. We use the terms Miqra, Messianic Community, and Body of Messiah interchangeably.
 
miqvah
(alt. mikvah) a pool of water conforming to certain dimensions and specifications, used for legal and spiritual purposes … also called in Latin a “ritularium” … the ritual bathing in the pool … Christian immersion of new believers is an equivalent practice
 
miqveh
something waited for, i.e. confidence; also a collection, i.e. (of water) a pond, or (of men and horses) a caravan or drove
abiding, gathering together, hope, linen yarn, plenty [of water], pool
 
mir’eh
pasture
 
mirmah
deceit
 
mishcha
ointment
 
mishkan
a residence (including a shepherd’s hut, the lair of animals; figuratively the grave); also the Temple; specifically the Tabernacle (prop. its wooden walls)
to dwell, a dwelling (place), habitation, tabernacle, tent … the Sanctuary Tent
 
mishlo’ach manot
the sending of “portions” to friends on Purim
 
mishma’at
obedience
 
Mishnah
code of Jewish oral law edited by Rabbi Judah HaNasi (c. 135 to 220 C.E.) about 200 C.E.; together with the Gemara forms the Talmud
 
mishpachah
(alt. mishpakhah, mishpochah) a family, i.e. circle of relatives; figuratively a class (of persons), a species (of animals) or sort (of things); by extension a tribe or people
family, kindred
 
mishpachot
(alt. mishpakhot, mishpokhot)
relatives
 
mishpat
judgment (pl. mishpatim)
 
mishpat mavet
a death sentence
 
Mishpatim
a portion in the Book of Exodus
 
mishpoyel
standing in awe
 
mishrah
rule
 
mishtatef
involved; joining
 
mispar
number
 
mitamuhl
suddenly
 
mitarev
meddlesome
 
mitnagged
opponent
 
mitnaggedim
opponents
 
Mitzbe’ach;
altar
 
mitznefet
head wrapping
 
Mitzrayim
Hebraic equivalent of “Egypt.” Spiritually, a picture of the world and the world’s system
 
mitzvah
(alt. mitzvoh) (lit. commandment) a religious precept or obligation; one of the 613 commandments in the Torah … principle for living, good deed; instruction (pl. mitzvot)
 
mitzvat aseh
a positive command; a commandment-to-do
 
mitzvat lo ta’aseh
a prohibition; a commandment-not-to-do
 
mitzvot
divine commandments given by Hashem to Moshe Rebbenu; divine commandments (sg. mitzvah)
 
mizmor
hymn; psalm
 
Mizmor Letodah
Psalm 101 recited daily to commemorate the Thanksgiving Offering in the Sanctuary
 
mizrach
east
 
mo’adim
fixed times/seasons/festivals
 
mo’ed (alt. mow’ed)
an appointment, i.e. a fixed time or season; specifically a festival; conventionally a year; by implication, an assembly (as convened for a definite purpose); technically the congregation; by extension, the place of meeting; also a signal (as appointed beforehand)
appointed (sign, time), (place of, solemn) assembly, congregation, (set, solemn) feast, (appointed, due) season, solemn (-ity), synagogue, (set) time (appointed)
 
mochesim
tax-collectors
 
mochiach
one arbitrator
 
modeh ani
I give thanks
 
mofet
example; role model
 
moftim
miracles; wonders
 
Mohel
A Rabbi specifically trained and authorized to perform ritual circumcision (pl. Mohalim)
 
moineia
prevented
 
moked
fire
 
Molad, Molad Halevanah
the appearance of the new Moon (pl. Moladot)
 
morech lev
cowardliness
 
moreh
teacher
 
Moreh Tzaddikim
teacher of righteousness
 
mori
my teacher
 
moshav hashafel
low seat
 
Moshe
Hebrew name of Moses
 
moshel
governor (pl. moshelim)
 
Moshiach
(alt. Mashiach, Moshi’a) Messiah, Savior
 
Moshieynu
our Deliverer
 
moshlim
rulers
 
Motza’ei Shabbat (alt. Shabat)
the night following the Sabbath
 
Motzi (alt. Hammotzee, Hamotzi)
Literally: [God] who brings forth [bread]; blessing over bread; standard blessing before meals at which bread is served … one of the fifteen phases of the Seder ceremony
 
Mount Moriah
The Temple site at Jerusalem; also reputed to be the mountain where Avraham bound his son Yitzhak to the altar.
 
Mount Sinai
The mountain from which the Torah was given by G‑d to Moshe
 
mufkarim
lawless ones
 
muktzeh
an object forbidden to carry on the Sabbath and Festival because of its not being fit or meant for use on that day
 
mumim
defects
 
murshe
proxy
 
musar
teaching with an ethical point
 
mussaf
(alt. musaf) “added” prayer service for Sabbaths and Festivals, immediately following morning prayer … the additional whole offering in the Sanctuary prescribed by the Torah for Sabbaths, Festivals and New Moons; Today: an additional Amidah prayer on said days as against the additional sacrifices
 

Page last updated on Wednesday, 03 August 2016 11:21 AM
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