Glossary: C

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  Shofar A Glossary of
Unfamiliar Terms
Ten Commandments Tablets  
    Compiled from numerous source documents
by
Ari Levitt*
ThM, ThD, DMin, MBA, CNHP
 
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Abbreviations Used In This Glossary

abbr. = abbreviated

alt. = alternate

Ar. = Aramaic

esp. = especially

Gr. = Greek

Heb. = Hebrew

lit. = literally

n. = noun

pl. = plural

pron. = pronounced

prop. = properly

sg. = singular

usu. = usually

v. = verb

Yid. = Yiddish

Transliteration/Pronunciation GuideBooks of the BibleProper NamesTribes of IsraelThe Mishnah

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C

A note about words beginning with or containing “ch”:
There is no “ch” sound (as in “chew” or “China”) in either Hebrew or Aramaic.
The “ch” combination is pronounced as a “breathy k” or “kh” and is frequently
transliterated that way.

C.E.
Common Era (same as A.D. but much less offensive to non-Messianic Jewish people)
 
cantor
one who leads the chanting [canting, singing] of prayers in the synagogue services.
 
cerubim
(alt. ceruvim) an order of angelic being; the Cherubim in the Sanctuary (sg. cherub)
 
chachah
reproof
 
chacham
wise man (pl. chachamim)
 
chadash
new wine
 
chadashot
new things
 
chafetz
good pleasure
 
chag
festival
 
Chag Habikkurim
(alt. Habikurim) Festival of the First Fruits; another name for Shavuot
 
Chag Haggeulah
Festival of Redemption
 
Chag HaKatzir
Festival of Ingathering or Harvest
 
Chag Sameach
joyous holiday; the greeting used on the festivals
 
chai
alive (or life); when Jews drink a toast, they wish each other “L’chayim” (to life)
 
chaim
(alt. chayyim) life; the plural ending indicates an increase or multiplication, thus “very life” or “abundant life”
 
chaiyal
soldier (pl. chaiyalim)
 
chal
placed under obligation
 
chalav
milk
 
chalil
flute
 
chalitzah
This Biblical ceremony, to absolve a man of marrying his childless brother’s widow, means “removal.” The widow removes his shoe and publicly spits upon the recalcitrant.
 
challah (alt. chalah)
Egg bread eaten on Shabbat and festivals; the challah used on Rosh haShanah is round, often containing raisins, symbolizing a sweet year, distinguishing it from the Shabbat challah that is braided … the kohen’s share in the dough … White braided Sabbath bread; name of the dough tithed from bread baking (pl. chalot)
 
chalutzim
pioneers
 
chamdanut
covetousness greed
 
chamesh
five
 
chamesh elafim
five thousand
 
chametz
(alt. chometz) (lit. sour) any fermented product of grain, all leavening agents; hence, that which makes “sour” … leavening, yeast, baking powder; mixes with a leavening agent, bread and bread crumbs; food prepared with leaven, by extension referring to all foods and utensils forbidden on Passover … leavened bread and anything made with wheat, rye, barley, oats, or spelt, which has not been supervised to ensure that it has not leavened; refers to prohibited foods during Pesach
 
chamor
donkey
 
chamot
shviger; mother-in-law
 
chaninah
mercy
 
Chanukat Habayit
dedication of the home; the ceremony affixing the mezuzah
 
Chanukiah
eight-branched candelabrum, with a place for a ninth candle (shamash) that light the others, especially designed for Chanukkah
 
Chanukkah
(Alt. Hanukah, Hanukkah, Chanukah) Dedication; name of the winter holiday commemorating the Maccabean victory over the Syrians in 165 B.C.E. and the rededication of the Temple
 
chap
grasp mentally; grab
 
charedi
orthodox
 
charon af HaShem
burning wrath or anger of God
 
charoset
(alt. charoset) a mixture of fruits (usually apples), nuts, cinnamon, and wine; one of the symbolic Passover foods on the seder plate. Its color and consistency are reminders of the bricks and mortar used by the Israelite slaves
 
Chas v’shalom
(alt. Chas veshalom) God forbid!
 
chashadot merusha’im
evil suspicions
 
chashivut
importance; prominence
 
Chassidic
pertaining to the Chasidim
 
Chasidim
Ultra-Orthodox followers of the eighteenth-century leader, Rabbi Israel, the Ba’al Shem Tov
Some main features of Chassidic thought, or Chassidism are emphasis on
   Sincerity, fervour
   Prayer
   Joy and spontaneity
   Humility
   Connection to the Tzadik, the Rebbe (Known as ADMO”R, acronym for Adoneinu, Moreinu veRabeinu (Our Master, Our Teacher and Our Rabbi)
   Introduction of Kabbalistic concepts to the masses
 
Some of the common customs of the Chassidim are:
   Specific clothing - Spodek, Shtreimel, long coats, gartel
   Eating with the Rebbe - Tisch, Farbrengen
   Order of prayer of Rav Yitzchak Luriah (Ari Zal)
   Later prayer times - following preparations
 
Chasidus
The Chassidic movement, was founded by R. Yisrael Ba’al Shem Tov (1700 - 1760) in the early 18th Century and grew to one of the great movements of mainstream Judaism to this day. It grew in the regions of Galicia, the Ukraine and Podolia.
 
chassidus
piety
 
chassuna
wedding
 
chatan
(alt. chosson) bridegroom
 
Chatan Bereshit
(lit. Bridegroom of Genesis) the man called to recite or chant the blessings over the first section of the Torah on Simchat Torah
 
Chatan Torah
(lit. Bridegroom of the Torah) the man called to recite or chant the blessings over the final section of the Torah on Simchat Torah
 
chatat
(alt. hataat, chattat) sin offering in the Temple (2 Chron 5:21)
 
chatetz
good pleasure of his will
 
chatoteinu
our sins
 
chatsot halailah; chatzot halailah
midnight
 
chattaim
sins
 
chattat
(alt, chatat) sin offering; sin-atoning sacrifice;
 
chattoteynu
our sins
 
chaver leneshek
comrade-in-arms
 
chavrusashaft
association
 
chavurah
company; fellowship; society; those who partake of the Paschal lamb together
 
chavurah (alt. chaburah, havra’ah)
a group of “subscribers” convened for the purpose of offering the Pesach Sacrifice and eating of its meat … Informal group, which meets together for Jewish study and celebration (pl. chavurot)
 
Chayyah
Beast; Anti-Mashiach; Antichrist
 
chayyah
living, animal, beast (pl. chayyot)
 
chayyei menuchah
life of rest
 
chayyeinu
our life
 
chayyim
(alt. chaim) life
 
chazakim
strong ones
 
chazan
(alt. chazzan, hazzan, hazan) the cantor, the leader in prayer
 
chazan hakkeneset
synagogue employee
 
Chazarat Hashatz
repetition of the amidah prayer by the cantor aloud after it was recited by the congregants
 
Chazereth
bitter root, usually horseradish, on the Seder plate
 
chazir
swine (pl. chazirim)
 
chazon
vision; revelation; prophecy
 
chazora
review
 
cheder
room or chamber … old-fashioned term for Hebrew school
 
chedvah
rejoicing
 
chefetz
desire
 
chelek
allotted portion
 
chen v’chesed
favor and mercy; lovingkindness
 
chepping
annoying
 
cherem
ban of destruction
 
cherish
a deaf person (pl. chereshim)
 
cheresh-illem
deaf and mute
 
cherev
sword
 
cherut
freedom
 
chesed
free; unmerited favor or grace
 
cheshbon
plan; account; bill
 
Cheshvan (Bul)
second month of Jewish year
 
chet
(lit. missing the mark) one of the Hebrew terms translated “sin” … equivalent to Gk. hamartia
 
chevlei leydah
pangs of childbirth
 
Chevlei Mashiach
birthpangs of Mashiach
 
Chevrah Kadisha
group of people entrusted with the mitzvah of preparing a body for burial
 
chikiah
wait
 
Chillul Hashem gidduf
desecration of the Name blasphemy
 
chiloni
secular
 
chiyuv
duty
 
chizzuk
strengthening
 
chochmah
wisdom
 
chodashim
moons
 
chodesh
month
 
choiv
debt
 
chok
decree; law
 
chokmah
wisdom (in a good sense); skillful, wisdom, wisely, wit
 
chol
non-sacred
 
Chol Hamoed
ordinary part of the festival
days in the middle of Pesach or Sukkot when work is allowed … weekdays of the Festival
 
choleh
sick one
 
cholent
a stew usually made from potatoes, beans and meat. The recipe varies from community to community. Calcutta “chamin” has rice, curry and chicken. German cholent has beans, dumpling and beef. Hungarians add whole eggs etc. It is eaten on Shabbat, and is placed on the fire on Friday afternoon. It cooks over Shabbat, and by lunchtime is ready to eat.
 
cholim
sick persons
 
cholom
dream
 
chomed
covetous
 
chomer haDin
rigor of the Law
 
choref
winter
 
chori af
burning wrath
 
chori afhaba
the wrath to come
 
chorim
freedmen
 
choshech
darkness
 
chosson
(alt. chatan) bridegroom
 
chotam
seal
 
chote’im
sinners
 
chotsh
at least
 
chovah musarit
moral duty
 
chozek
encouragement strength
 
Chukat
a portion in the Book of Numbers
 
chukim
laws
 
Chumash
one of the Five Books of the Torah (pl. Chumashim)
 
chumra
legalism
 
chupah
(alt. chuppah, huppah) canopy under which pair stand at wedding ceremony, symbol of home to be established; represents the honeymoon chamber
 
churban
destruction
 
chutzpah
nerve
 
cohan
(alt. cohen, kohen) priest
 
Cohen
(alt. cohan, kohen) Priest … a descendant Moishe’s brother Aharon, the first High Priest (Cohen Gadol) of the Jewish people. The Cohen is always called up first to the Torah reading. (pl. Cohenim, alt. Cohanim, Kohanim, Kohenim)
 
Cohen Gadol
High Priest. The Cohen Gadol, wore a special turban, tunic and breast plate amongst other things. (pl. Cohenim Gedolim)
 
Cohen haGadol
(alt. Kohen haGadol, Cohen Gadol, Kohen Gadol) The High Priest
 
confirmation
ceremony marking the completion of the religious school course of study, often held on Shavuot
 
consecration
ceremony marking the beginning of a child’s formal Jewish education, often held on Simchat Torah
 

Page last updated on Wednesday, 03 August 2016 11:21 AM
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