About the Future

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Developing a Systematic Messianic Theology
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What the Torah Says About the Future
(An Overview of End-Time Events)


Of all the branches or divisions of Systematic Theology, whether traditional evangelical Christian or Messianic Jewish, I find this the most difficult for me to be completely objective and  consistent, and to accept only that which I can clearly support from the Scriptures, no matter what I wish to be true.

For more than 35 years I believed and taught the evangelical “party line” of a pre-tribulational end-times chronology that was used in the Left Behind series of novels by Tim LeHaye and Jerry Jenkins. I no longer believe that interpretation to be correct.

Now that I have been studying the Scriptures from the perspective of those who originally penned them and of those to whom they were originally address, I find that my theology has changed significantly.

Eschatology, the theology of future events, has four clear, though poorly defined, areas of concern, though the order of their occurrence, and the specific events that are to occur in each of these epochs are matters of great debate throughout both Messianic Judaism and Christianity. The primary areas of concern are these:

• The resurrection of the dead

• The Tribulation, or Time of Jacob’s Trouble

• The return and earthly reign of Messiah

• The eternal state

The Jewish Concept of Olam Haba

Traditional Jewish eschatology (study of future events) does not really concern itself with the future, except as revealed by the prophets. Although there is considerable concern about “working with HaShem” to bring about the ultimate redemption of the world, the Jewish heart is traditionally much more concerned with living a life that is pleasing to HaShem in the here and now, and leaves it to HaShem to sort out the future.

“One moment of repentance and good deeds in this world is better than the entire life of the world to come.” (R. Jacob, quoted in Avot 4:17)

Jewish thought is concerned with only two major epochs: the Olam Hazeh (the World Which Is) and the Olam Haba (the World Which is to Come). The Olam Haba begins with the termination of one’s earthly life, includes “the days of Messiah,” and stretches into eternity. It includes the concepts of resurrection, plus the afterlife in which the righteous dwell in Gan Eden (Paradise, or literally Garden of Eden) and the unrighteous in Gehinom. (See the article “Olam Ha-Ba” in the Jewish Virtual Library, which states “It is futile to attempt to systematize the Jewish notions of the hereafter.”)

Yeshua succinctly expresses the Jewish idea of the present state of the dead in the story He tells of the rich man and the beggar Lazarus (Luke 16:19-31). In this view the dead are in a place called Sh'ol (not to be confused with the Christian idea of hell), apparently awaiting the resurrection. The righteous dead are conscious and at peace alongside Father Abraham (at “Abraham’s Side” or in “Abraham’s Bosom”), the unrighteous are conscious and in torment. The two compartments of Sh'ol are divided by a deep rift which cannot be crossed.

19Once there was a rich man who used to dress in the most expensive clothing and spent his days in magnificent luxury. 20At his gate had been laid a beggar named El`azar who was covered with sores. 21He would have been glad to eat the scraps that fell from the rich man's table; but instead, even the dogs would come and lick his sores. 22In time the beggar died and was carried away by the angels to Avraham's side; the rich man also died and was buried.

23In Sh'ol, where he was in torment, the rich man looked up and saw Avraham far away with El`azar at his side. 24He called out, “Father Avraham, take pity on me, and send El`azar just to dip the tip of his finger in water to cool my tongue, because I'm in agony in this fire!”

25However, Avraham said, “Son, remember that when you were alive, you got the good things while he got the bad; but now he gets his consolation here, while you are the one in agony. 26Yet that isn't all: between you and us a deep rift has been established, so that those who would like to pass from here to you cannot, nor can anyone cross over from there to us.”

27He answered, “Then, father, I beg you to send him to my father's house, 28where I have five brothers, to warn them; so that they may be spared having to come to this place of torment too.”

29But Avraham said, “They have Moshe and the Prophets;[4] they should listen to them.”

30However, he said, “No, father Avraham, they need more. If someone from the dead goes to them, they'll repent!”

31But he replied, “If they won't listen to Moshe and the Prophets, they won't be convinced even if someone rises from the dead!”

Most interpreters consider this teaching from Yeshua as a parable. If it is a parable, it is the only one in which Yeshua ever gave names to the characters in the story. I therefore believe that Yeshua was not telling a parable, but rather describing an actual event.

Unfortunately, even within Messianic Judaism, there is yet no clear and concise consensus of opinion regarding the future.

Three Views of the “Rapture”

There are three major views plus three sub-sets of the chronology of the Millennium. They are discussed in greater detail here.

• Premillennialism: Premillennialism speculates that the return of Messiah will inaugurate a literal thousand-year earthly kingdom. His return will coincide with a seven-year period of tribulation at the hands of the Anti-Messiah (Antichrist): three and one-half years of “Tribulation” followed by three and one-half years of  the “Great Tribulation.” Following the seven-year Tribulation period Messiah will establish His throne in Jerusalem and rule physically on the earth for a thousand years. Before the Kingdom is established, there will be a resurrection of the people of God who have died. There will also be a “rapture” of the people of the Church who are still living. Both the resurrected and the living meet Messiah at His coming. A thousand years of peace will follow, during which time Christ will reign and Satan will be imprisoned in the Abyss. Those who hold to this view usually fall into one of the following three categories that are most widely accepted, all of which are based on the assumed timing of “the Rapture of the Church”:

• Pre-Tribulation Rapture: the “Rapture” occurs immediately before the “Tribulation” begins

• Mid-Tribulation Rapture: the “Rapture” occurs in the middle of the “Tribulation” (three and a half years after the beginning of the tribulation) just before it becomes the “Great Tribulation”

• Post-Tribulation Rapture: the “Rapture” occurs at the end of the “Great Tribulation”

Though I taught the premillennial view for over 35 years, I personally no longer believe in the Rapture of the Church, and here's why.


Six Major Divisions of the Future

It is not my intent to provide here a detailed commentary on either the Book of Daniel or the Book of the Revelation, but only to try to create an overview of key events.[1] I believe that the four major concerns of eschatology that I mentioned above can be divided into six epochs:

  1. Current Events Leading to the Anti-Messiah
    1. The Apostasy
    2. The Rise of Anti-Messiah’s Confederacy
    3. The Restoration of the Temple
  2. The Rise and Fall of the Anti-Messiah
    1. The Temple Rebuilt
    2. The Man of Sin Revealed (Abomination of Desolation)
    3. People in Judah Flee
      1. The 144,000 Witnesses
      2. Redemption of the Multitude
      3. The Two Witnesses
    4. The Great Tribulation (Time of Jacob’s Trouble)
    5. The Salvation of the Jewish Remnant (Protection of the Chosen Ones)
    6. The Sun and Moon Darkened
  3. The Return of Messiah
  4. The Reign of Messiah
  5. The Rebellion Against Messiah
  6. The Redemption of Earth by Messiah
    1. New Heaven and New Earth
    2. New Jerusalem — the Lamb’s Bride
    3. The Eternal State

1. Current Events Leading to the Anti-Messiah

I believe that there are three significant areas of concern that we are currently facing which are necessary to understand before we delve into the details of the future.

1a. The Apostasy

Let no one in any way deceive you, for it [the Day of ADONAI] will not come unless the apostasy comes first, and the man of lawlessness is revealed, the son of destruction, (2 Thessalonians 2:3 NAS)

But the Spirit explicitly says that in later times some will fall away from the faith, paying attention to deceitful spirits and doctrines of demons, (1 Timothy 4:1 NAS)

I will heal their apostasy, I will love them freely, For My anger has turned away from them. (Hosea 14:4 NAS)

Rav Sha'ul clearly says to the Thessalonians and to Timothy that there will be a time of apostasy, a falling away from the faith taught by Yeshua and the Emissaries. But Hosea says that ultimately God will heal that apostasy. I believe that “the Church” is that very apostasy, beginning with the establishment of the Roman State Religion in 325 CE and continuing to the present. I have explained in some considerable detail why I believe that the Church is the fulfillment of Rav Sha'ul’s prediction in my article “Is the Rapture for Real?” Furthermore, I believe that the resurgence of Messianic Judaism starting in 1967 is the beginning of that cure. (Ant that’s pretty much the theme of this entire website.)


1b.The Rise of Anti-Messiah’s Confederacy

The Book of the Revelation (chapter 17) says that there will be a beast with “seven heads and ten horns” come against Jerusalem. For a long time, classic Christian theology has held that this will be a ten-nation confederacy to arise out of a revived Roman Empire, based upon the idea that Rome is a city that is built on seven hills and the reference in verse 18: “And the woman you saw is the great city that rules over the kings of the earth.” Until the Protestant Reformation, the Roman Church held total control over virtually all of the area that was once the Roman Empire, “ruling over all the kings of the earth.”

However, throughout the Bible the place names that are associated with the war with “Gog and Magog” are all lands that are currently Islamic nations. The current activities of ISIS throughout the Middle East would seem to clearly indicate that the Islamic nations are in the process of assembling the Islamic Caliphate which will be lead by a man known as the Mahdi, or Twelfth Imam. In fact, there are several Islamic leaders who have stated that they have frequent meetings with the Mahdi, and have openly said that they are in the process of building the caliphate. The language used in the Qur'an to describe this individual is identical to that used in the Bible to describe the Anti-Messiah (Antichrist).

ISIS is presently actively destroying the very presence of all non-Muslim religions throughout the Middle East, burning, crucifying, and beheading Christians everywhere they go. The only reason they are oppressing Christians and not Jews also is that most of the Jews have already fled to Israel from those Muslim lands. ISIS is openly and totally dedicated to the absolute annihilation of Israel, just as the Anti-Messiah will be.

It is therefore my considered opinion that the Anti-Messiah is the Mahdi, and that his confederacy that will come against Jerusalem is the Islamic Caliphate.


1c. The Restoration of the Temple

The Temple Institute currently has completed fabrication of all of the implements and garments needed for Levitical service in the Temple, and Kohenim and Leviim have been training in the sacred rituals for several years. The cornerstone has already been cut in accordance with the Torah’s requirements, and presently in storage. The only thing still needed in order to dedicate the Temple is the ashes of a red heifer, and the Institute is working very hard to breed an acceptable kosher animal in Israel.

There are those who claim that the Temple cannot be rebuilt as long as the mosque known as the Dome of the Rock still stands on Mount Moriah. While Temple Mount is obviously the preferred location for the Temple, it is not absolutely the only place that the Temple may be erected. Furthermore, all that will be required for the destruction of the mosque is for one Israeli Air Force pilot to launch a single missile or bomb.

That leader will make firm an agreement with many people for seven years. He will stop the offerings and sacrifices after three and one-half years. A destroyer will do terrible things until the ordered end comes to the destroyed city. (Daniel 9:27 NCV)

There is the outside possibility that the peace treaty Daniel spoke of will provide for the Temple to be erected on Mount Moriah next to the Dome of the Rock.

Whatever conditions permit the Temple to be restored, Anti-Messiah will allow the offering and sacrifices to be conducted for three and one-half years before declaring himself to be a god.


2. The Rise and Fall of the Anti-Messiah

2a. The Temple Rebuilt

I believe the Scriptures make it clear that before the Anti-Messiah (Antichrist) declares himself to be a god, there must be a functioning Temple in Jerusalem. However, it is possible that these four prophecies were either fulfilled or pre-fulfilled by the Romans. In approximately 40 CE, Emperor Gaius Julius Caesar Germanicus (Caligula, “ittle boots”) attempted to force a statue of himself to be erected in the Temple. This led directly to the rebellion that ultimately resulted in the destruction of the Temple, the sack of Jerusalem, and the dispersion of Israel into the nations thirty years later.

Now Caius Caesar did so grossly abuse the fortune he had arrived at, as to take himself to be a god, and to desire to be so called also, and to cut off those of the greatest nobility out of his country. He also extended his impiety as far as the Jews. Accordingly he sent Petronius with an army to Jerusalem to place his statues in the temple, and commanded him that, in case the Jews would not admit of them, he should slay those that opposed it, and carry all the rest into captivity.[3]

It may possibly be this event that was predicted. It is also possible that the Anti-Messiah will fulfill these prophecies a second time.

So when you see the abomination that causes desolation, spoken of by the prophet Daniel, standing in the holy place" (let the reader understand) (Matt. 24:15 HCSB):

He will oppose himself to everything that people call a god or make an object of worship; he will put himself above them all, so that he will sit in the Temple of God and proclaim that he himself is God. (2 Thess 2:4)

Since Daniel’s description (Dan. 11:45) of the Lawless One does not fit with the siege of Rome, he is referring to a later siege. The primary fulfillment of this prophecy is considered by most to have been the campaign against Israel by the Syrian king Antiocus Epiphanes (the Maccabean war, ca. 175 to 164 BCE). It may possibly happen again as part of Anti-Messiah’s campaign, and even yet again when Lucifer lays siege to Jerusalem at the end of the Messianic Kingdom.

He [the Lawless One] will pitch the tents of his royal pavilion between the seas and the beautiful Holy Mountain [Temple Mount]; yet he will come to his end, and no one will help him. (Dan. 11:45)

Yochanan did not write the Revelation until about 90 CE, so his letter cannot possibly refer to either the Jewish revolt of 40-70 CE or to the fall of Jerusalem in 70 CE. But it is clear that the Temple in Jerusalem was seen in his vision.

I was given a measuring rod like a stick and told, “Get up, and measure the Temple of God and the altar, and count how many people are worshipping there! But the court outside the Temple, leave that out; don't measure it; because it has been given to the Goyim, and they will trample over the holy city for forty-two months.” (Rev. 11:1-2)

See also “The Third Temple


2b. The Man of Sin Revealed (Abomination of Desolation)

Daniel provides us with a summary timeline of Anti-Messiah’s reign:

24Seventy weeks are decreed about your people and your holy city — to bring the rebellion to an end, to put a stop to sin, to wipe away injustice, to bring in everlasting righteousness, to seal up vision and prophecy, and to anoint the most holy place. 25Know and understand this: From the issuing of the decree to restore and rebuild Jerusalem until Messiah the Prince will be seven weeks and 62 weeks. It will be rebuilt with a plaza and a moat, but in difficult times. 26After those 62 weeks the Messiah will be cut off and will have nothing. The people of the coming prince will destroy the city and the sanctuary. The end will come with a flood, and until the end there will be war; desolations are decreed. 27He will make a firm covenant with many for one week but in the middle of the week he will put a stop to sacrifice and offering. And the abomination of desolation will be on a wing of the temple until the decreed destruction is poured out on the desolator." (Daniel 9:25-27 HCSB)

Verse 24: “Seventy weeks.” The Hebrew word translated “weeks” is [wbX (Shabuwa`), seven, and the prophetic year is 360 days. Each “week” is a week of years, or seven years. So the total “seventy weeks” of years is 490 years decreed by God to “to bring the [Israel’s] rebellion [against God] to an end, to put a stop to sin, to wipe away injustice, to bring in everlasting righteousness, to seal up vision and prophecy, and to anoint the most holy place.”

Verse 25: Jerusalem will be rebuilt, but it will be in difficult times, under Roman oppression for most of the time. The decree to rebuild Jerusalem was issued on the first day of the “month Nisan, in the twentieth year of King Artaxerxes” (i.e., 445 BCE). (Nehemiah 2:1)

The prophecy states that 69 weeks of years (173,880 days using the 360 day prophetic year) after the command goes forth to restore and rebuild the city of Jerusalem the Messiah will come. If we count forward 173,880 days from March 14th 445 B.C. we arrive at April 6th 32 A.D.

Internet article “Confirming the Prophetic Date of 445 B.C.”
quoting from The Creator Beyond Time and Space by Chuck Missler
http://xwalk.ca/king2.html accessed Sept. 7, 2015

Now take the 476 years in this prophecy and simply start counting from March 14, 445 B.C. (when the command to rebuild the city Jerusalem and its wall was given) and you end on the exact year (even the very day) Jesus (Yeshua) rode 'triumphantly' into Jerusalem (Palm Sunday), being praised as King and Messiah by thousands upon thousands of the Jewish people who had gathered from all over for the Passover Holidays. Honored, yet lowly, riding on a donkey — exactly as another prophet, the prophet Zechariah, said He would ...

Internet article “Mathematical Bible Prophecy”
http://www.alphanewsdaily.com/mathprophecy1.html accessed Sep. 7, 2015

Verse 26: A week later Yeshua was murdered (“cut off”) and had noting (left no children). Thirty-eight years later in 70 CE “the people of the coming prince,” General Titus, destroyed “the city and the sanctuary.” The people of Israel were scattered among the nations (the Diaspora) until Israel was restored to the Land in 1948.

Verse 27: We have completed 69 weeks of Daniel’s prophecy. At this point the prophetic clock abruptly stops with an additional “week” of 7 years until God brings the rebellion to an end, puts a stop to sin, wipes away injustice, brings in everlasting righteousness, seals up (ends) vision and prophecy, and anoints the most holy place. That remaining seven years constitutes the duration of the Tribulation.

Verse 28: When the prophetic clock begins ticking again, the “the coming prince” either makes or enforces a covenant, apparently a peace treaty, with Israel for seven years, the final “week” of Daniel’s prophecy. This treaty permits the resumption of Levitical worship, which requires a restored Temple. “In the middle of the week,” or after three and one-half years, “he will put a stop to sacrifice and offering.” The Hebrew text of the rest of the sentence is obscure, but there are two alternate translations: “And the desolator will be on the wing of abominations,” or “And the desolator will come on the wings of monsters (or of horror).” Can “the wings of monsters” refer to aerial combat like we have seen so often on television newscasts since the “war on terror” began?

1Let no one in any way deceive you, for it will not come unless the 2apostasy comes first, and the 3man of lawlessness is revealed, the son of destruction, 4who opposes and exalts himself above 5every so-called god or object of worship, so that he takes his seat in the temple of God, 6displaying himself as being God. (2 Thess. 2:3-4 NAS)

When he causes the sacrifices to be stopped, the Anti-Messiah takes his place in the Most Holy Place, or perhaps establishes the Most Holy Place as his throne room, thus “displaying himself as God.”

So when you see the abomination that causes desolation, spoken of by the prophet Daniel, standing in the holy place" (let the reader understand) (Matt. 24:15 HCSB):

Then the one who embodies separation from Torah (the Lawless One) will be revealed, the one whom the Lord Yeshua will slay with the breath of his mouthd and destroy by the glory of his coming. When this man who avoids Torah comes, the Adversary will give him the power to work all kinds of false miracles, signs and wonders. (2 Thess. 2:8-9)

There was given to him [the Lawless One] a mouth speaking arrogant words and blasphemies, and authority to act for forty-two months was given to him. And he opened his mouth in blasphemies against God, to blaspheme His name and His Tabernacle; that is, those who dwell in heaven.[5] (Rev. 13:5-6 NAS)

11From the time the daily sacrifice is abolished and the abomination of desolation is set up, there will be 1,290 days. 12Blessed is the one who waits for and reaches 1,335 days. 13But as for you, go on your way to the end; you will rest, then rise to your destiny at the end of the days. (Daniel 12:11-13 HCSB)

From the time that the Anti-Messiah causes the daily sacrifices to stop and declares himself to be God, there remain 1,290 days (3.53 years) until his ultimate defeat. Apparently after his defeat there will be a period of 45 days (1,335-1,290 days) before King Messiah officially takes His throne.


2c. People in Judah Flee

15“So when you see the abomination that causes devastation spoken about through the prophet Dani'el standing in the Holy Place” (let the reader understand the allusion), 16“that will be the time for those in Y'hudah to escape to the hills. 17If someone is on the roof, he must not go down to gather his belongings from his house; 18if someone is in the field, he must not turn back to get his coat. 19What a terrible time it will be for pregnant women and nursing mothers! 20Pray that you will not have to escape in winter or on Shabbat. (Matthew 24:15-20)

This prophecy that Yeshua gave was literally fulfilled when Titus destroyed Jerusalem in 70 CE. It may very well be fulfilled again when the Anti-Messiah is revealed.

You will flee by My mountain valley, for the valley of the mountains will extend to Azal. You will flee as you fled from the earthquake in the days of Uzziah king of Judah. Then the LORD my God will come and all the holy ones with Him. (Zechariah 14:5 HCSB)

The woman [Israel] fled into the wilderness, where she had a place prepared by God, to be fed [nourished or cared for] there for 1,260 days [exactly 3.5 prophetic years of 360 days each]. (Rev. 12:6 HCSB)

Many interpreters believe that those in Israel will take refuge in Petra, Jordan, for this three and one-half years. It is a very large valley totally surrounded by high peaks, with the only land access a very narrow cleft that is in some places only about fifteen feet wide; it is thus easily defended from land assaults. If you look at the pictures you will see there are numerous rooms carved out of the solid rock that could be utilized for dwellings. These would also provide significant protection from aerial attack. It is more likely, though, that HaShem will provide some sort of supernatural protection either in addition to, or in place of, natural protection.


2.c.i The 144,000 Witnesses



2.c.ii Redemption of the Multitude



2.c.iii The Two Witnesses



2d.The Great Tribulation (Time of Jacob’s Trouble)

At the midway point of the seven-year Tribulation, the Anti-Messiah (dare I say Mahdi?) has declared himself to be God and demanded to be worshipped. Obviously, Israel rejects the offer, so the Man Without Torah — the Lawless One — unleashes his rage.

I know of many Christians (in fact, virtually all Christians I know) who expect the Rapture to protect them from all of this, but as I explain here, I no longer believe in the Christian concept of the Rapture. Whether or not the wrath of Anti-Messiah reaches Europe and the Western Hemisphere remains to be seen. I'm looking at all of this future with an eye toward an Islamic Caliphate led by a nuclear-equipped Iran. I believe that what we are seeing from ISIS right now is typical of what we can expect from the Biblical Tribulation. I may very well be totally wrong. Or I may actually be correct. We really can’t depend on the Scriptures to tell us what is going to happen in the Gentile nations of the Western Hemisphere or even Europe. The Scriptures are the record of God’s dealing with His chosen people Israel, and those Goyim who choose to affiliate with Israel, and they have absolutely nothing at all to say about the Gentile nations outside of the Middle East.

Now at that time Michael[6], the great prince who stands guard over the sons of your people, will arise. And there will be a time of distress such as never occurred since there was a nation until that time; and at that time your people, everyone who is found written in the book,[7] will be rescued. (Dan. 12:1 NAS)

The the Hebrew word translated as “rescued” is tlm, malat, which means to slip away, escape, deliver, save, be delivered. The Scriptures are silent about how that escape is to be provided. Perhaps it is by fleeing into the wilderness (Rev. 12:6).

For there will be trouble then worse than there has ever been from the beginning of the world until now, and there will be nothing like it again! Indeed, if the length of this time had not been limited, no one would survive; but for the sake of those who have been chosen, its length will be limited. (Matt. 24:21-22)

He [God] will enable him [the Lawless One] to deceive, in all kinds of wicked ways, those who are headed for destruction because they would not receive the love of the truth that could have saved them. This is why God is causing them to go astray, so that they will believe the Lie. The result will be that all who have not believed the truth, but have taken their pleasure in wickedness, will be condemned. (2 Thess. 2:10-12)

The Beast from the Sea
1And I saw a beast come up out of the sea, with ten horns and seven heads. On its horns were ten royal crowns and on its heads blasphemous names. 2The beast which I saw was like a leopard, but with feet like those of a bear and a mouth like the mouth of a lion. To it the dragon gave its power, its throne and great authority. 3One of the heads of the beast appeared to have received a fatal wound, but its fatal wound was healed, and the whole earth followed after the beast in amazement. 4They worshipped the dragon, because he had given his authority to the beast; and they worshipped the beast, saying, "Who is like the beast? Who can fight against it?" 5It was given a mouth speaking arrogant blasphemies; and it was given authority to act for forty-two months. 6So it opened its mouth in blasphemies against God to insult his name and his Sh'khinah, and those living in heaven; 7it was allowed to make war on God's holy people and to defeat them; and it was given authority over every tribe, people, language and nation. 8Everyone living on earth will worship it except those whose names are written in the Book of Life belonging to the Lamb slaughtered before the world was founded. 9Those who have ears, let them hear! 10"If anyone is meant for captivity, into captivity he goes! If anyone is to be killed with the sword, with the sword he is to be killed!" This is when God's holy people must persevere and trust! (Rev. 13:1-10)

Islamic Terrorist HeadbandVerse 1: The “beast” in verses 1-10 is the entire satanic confederacy, not an individual. In the Tanakh, “horn” often means king. This beast comes up out of the sea. In the Tanakh, the “sea” often refers to the “sea of humanity” and often refers to the Gentile nations. The angel in Daniel’s vision explains to Daniel that the the ten are ten kings (Daniel 7:24). The 10 royal crowns confirms that interpretation. “Seven heads” is a bit ambiguous, but since seven is the number of perfection and “head” frequently refers to authority or power, this may indicate that this confederation of 10 Gentile kings holds perfect, or absolute, power and/or authority. If I am correct that this confederacy is the Islamic Caliphate, then “on its heads blasphemous names” may refer to the name of the demon Allah, who falsely claims to be the God of Abraham, and that of his “prophet” Mohammed that appear on the headband of many militant Islamic extremists. Or it may be the names of the Anti-Messiah and his false prophet.

Verse 2: The beast described here is a composite of three of animals from Daniel’s vision, which most scholars identify as Babylon (lion with eagle wings), Persia (bear), Greece (leopard), and Rome (beast with 10 horns). Here is how the angel interpreted the fourth animal to Daniel.

23This is what he said: “The fourth animal will be a fourth kingdom on earth [Rome?]. It will be different from the other kingdoms; it will devour the whole earth, trample it down and crush it [as Rome certainly did]. 24As for the ten horns, out of this kingdom ten kings will arise; and yet another will arise after them. Now he will be different from the earlier ones, and he will put down three kings. 25He will speak words against the Most High and try to exhaust the holy ones of the Most High. He will attempt to alter the seasons and the law; and [the holy ones] will be handed over to him for a time [a year], times [two years] and half a time [half a year, for a total of three and one-half years]. 26But when the court goes into session, he will be stripped of his rulership, which will be consumed and completely destroyed. 27Then the kingdom, the rulership and the greatness of the kingdoms under the whole heaven will be given to the holy people of the Most High. Their kingdom is an everlasting kingdom, and all rulers will serve and obey them.” (Daniel 7:23-27)

Because they identified the fourth beast as Rome, most Christian theologians identify the ten kings arising from the fourth kingdom as a ten-nation confederacy rising from the ashes of the Roman Empire, that is, ten nations which were at one time part of the empire, and “another will arise after them.” When the European Common Market was first formed, it consisted of ten nations, all of which had been part of the Roman Empire, so the natural interpretation was that the Antichrist would come out of the Common Market.

However, reading Daniel 9:24 carefully, it does not say “another will arise out of them.” It says “another will arise after them.” While the Common Market interpretation may yet prove to be the case, in light of current events I feel that a ten-nation Islamic confederation forming the Caliphate, with the Mahdi arising to lead them, is much more likely. Whatever it's true nature, this ten-nation confederacy will bring the Great Tribulation against Israel for three and one-half years.

“To it the dragon gave its power, its throne and great authority.” Throughout Scripture, Satan is identified as the serpent, that old dragon. This confederation will receive its power directly from Satan.

Verse 3. Again, many interpreters view the “fatal wound” to indicate the idea that while Rome has “died,” this confederacy would being it back to ”life.” I think it may mean that one of the nations of the confederacy will be have been defeated, and regained its power; perhaps Iraq or Afghanistan? Or it may mean that one of the leaders of one of these nations will be assassinated and resuscitated.

Verse 4. “They worshipped the dragon, because he had given his authority to the beast; and they worshipped the beast, saying, ‘Who is like the beast? Who can fight against it?’” I'm going to go way out on a limb here, and nobody says you need to agree with me. Throughout the Qur'an, Allah claims to be the God of Abraham. He claims to be the one who created the world (Sura 2:29-38). He clams to have made a covenant with Israel (Sura 2:40). He claims it was he who led Israel out of Egypt. (Sura 2:47-71). And he claims to have given Israel the Torah (Surah 2:53). But whenever Allah describes himself, he provides a description that cannot possibly be the God of Abraham. Therefore, Allah is obviously a false god. The Bible, both the Tanakh and the Apostolic Writings make it clear that all false gods are actually demons. I believe that the demon Allah is either one of the highest-ranking demons, or more likely, the prince of demons, Lucifer himself. Allah’s attitude to God’s chosen people certainly does not sound like HaShem, the God of Abraham. Let’s have a look at what the Koran says about non-Muslims:

  • Slay the unbelievers wherever you find them (2:191)
  • Make war on the infidels living in your neighborhood (9:123)
  • When opportunity arises, kill the infidels wherever you catch them (9:5)
  • Kill the Jews and the Christians if they do not convert to Islam or refuse to pay Jizya tax (9:29)
  • Any religion other than Islam is not acceptable (3:85)
  • The Jews and the Christians are perverts; fight them (9:30)
  • Maim and crucify the infidels if they criticize Islam. (5:33)
  • The infidels are unclean; do not let them into a mosque (9:28)
  • Punish the unbelievers with garments of fire, hooked iron rods, boiling water; melt their skin and bellies (22:19)
  • Do not hanker for peace with the infidels; behead them when you catch them (47:4)
  • The unbelievers are stupid; urge the Muslims to fight them (8:65)
  • Muslims must not take the infidels as friends (3:28)
  • Terrorize and behead those who believe in scriptures other than the Qur’an (8:12)
    [even though he claims to have given Moshe the Torah]
  • Muslims must muster all weapons to terrorize the infidels (8:60)

The very first verse of the Qur'an says, “All praise is due to Allah, the lord of the worlds.” 2Cor. 4:4 says that Satan is the god of this world. I rest my case.

Verses 5-6: Falsely claiming to be the God of Abraham certainly is blasphemy. Forty-two months is three and a half years.

Verse 7: Apparently Israel will not do too well against this confederation in combat. “… authority over every tribe, people, language and nation.” It would seem that this includes Europe and the Western Hemisphere.

Verse 8: Only those whose names have been written in the Lamb’s Book of Life before the foundation of the earth will not worship the beast.

Verse 9: Listen, then, if you have ears!

Verse 10: God’s chosen people must hang tough and trust God, whether we are destined to be taken captive, or killed with the sword. Remember that “to be absent from the body is to be at home with the Lord.”

The Beast from the Earth
11Then I saw another beast coming up out of the earth. It had two horns like those of a lamb, but it spoke like a dragon. 12"It exercises all the authority of the first beast in its presence; and it makes the earth and its inhabitants worship the first beast, the one whose fatal wound had been healed. (Rev. 13:11-12)

Verse 11: “… two horns like a lamb.” Messiah is the Lamb of God; this beast is an individual who tries to look like Messiah, but speaks the message of Satan. This is the Anti-Messiah (Antichrist); perhaps the Mahdi?

Verse 12: The Anti-Messiah “exercises all the authority of the first beast,” or controls the confederation.

An alternate interpretation might be that the first beast is the confederation, the leader of one of the nations in the confederation is assassinated and resuscitated, and after his resuscitation becomes the embodiment of that nation. This person may be the Anti-Messiah, and the second beast who looks like a messiah, is given the full authority of the Anti-Messiah and causes everyone to worship the Anti-Messiah. Since Yeshua, the true Messiah, was crucified, died, and resurrected, the “resurrection” of the Anti-Messiah (his fatal wound healed) may be part of the deception to make the world believe that he has the same power and authority as Yeshua. 

7He spoke with a loud voice: “Fear God and give Him glory, because the hour of His judgment has come. Worship the Maker of heaven and earth, the sea and springs of water."” 8A second angel followed, saying: “It has fallen, Babylon the Great has fallen, who made all nations drink the wine of her sexual immorality, which brings wrath.“ (Rev. 14:7).

Verse 7: In the midst of the Great Tribulation, the people of God are to honor Him and give Him glory, because He is bringing His judgment against the nations who have oppressed Israel.

Verse 8: Interpreters who think the confederation is the “revived Roman Empire” think that when Kefa (Peter) said “She who is Babylon, chosen with you” (1 -Peter 5:13), he was referring to the Messianic community in Rome, and calling Rome “Babylon” because it was so corrupt and evil. They therefore think that this verse is saying that Rome has fallen. Some go so far as to say it means that the “harlot of Babylon” (Rev. 17:3-6) is the Roman Church and the Vatican has fallen. I don't see any reason to think that Kefa was actually referring to a Messianic community in Babylon, about 60 miles south of what is now Baghdad, Iraq. Saddam Hussein had every intention of restoring the ancient city and making it his capital. It is not unreasonable that Babylon may be restored under the Caliphate, and may even become its capital city.

The phrase “… wine of her sexual immorality” may also be translated as “wine of her passionate immorality.” Can this be referring to the rampant pedophilia that Islam is noted for? Or perhaps it is simply referring to the overall immorality of Islam in general.

9Another angel, a third one, followed them and said in a loud voice, “If anyone worships the beast and its image and receives the mark on his forehead or on his hand, 10he will indeed drink the wine of God’s fury poured undiluted into the cup of his rage. He will be tormented by fire and sulfur before the holy angels and before the Lamb, 11and the smoke from their tormenting goes up forever and ever. They have no rest, day or night, those who worship the beast and its image and those who receive the mark of its name.” (Rev. 14:9-11)

 There are so many opinions as to what constitutes the “mark of the beast” that I’m not even going to speculate as to what the mark may be. Some are terribly concerned that they will accidentally receive the mark and be eternally lost. God is not capricious! The “mark” is apparently given to those who make a conscious choice to receive it as a sign of loyalty to, and worship of, the Anti-Messiah. It may very well be, however, that the penalty for refusing to worship the beast and take his mark is death.


2e. Salvation of the Chosen Ones


Now at that time Michael[5], the great prince who stands guard over the sons of your people, will arise. And there will be a time of distress such as never occurred since there was a nation until that time; and at that time your people, everyone who is found written in the book,[6] will be rescued. (Dan. 12:1 NAS)

The the Hebrew word translated as “rescued” is tlm, malat, which means to slip away, escape, deliver, save, be delivered. The Scriptures are silent about how that escape is to be provided. Perhaps it is by fleeing into the wilderness (Rev. 12:6).

Matt. 24:23-28: Then if anyone shall say to you, Look, here or there is Messiah do not believe. For there will arise false messiahs and false prophets, and they will show great signs and wonders so much so that, if it were possible, they would deceive the true chosen ones. Take notice that I have told you before. Wherefore if any say to you, "Look, He is in the desert," do not go; or "Look, He is in a secret place," do not believe it. For as the lightning comes out of the east, and shines even to the west; so also will be the coming of the Son of man. For wherever the carcass is, there the eagles will be gathered together.

[By this the Messiah shows His desire for the chosen ones to be protected.]

2 Thes. 2:13-15: But we are bound to give thanks always to G-d for you, brethren beloved of Adonai, because G-d has from the beginning chosen you to salvation through holiness of the Spirit and belief of the truth [remembrance]: He called you to that by our good news, to the obtaining of the glory of Adonai Yeshua HaMashiach. Therefore, brethren, stand fast, and hold to the traditions which you have been taught…

1 Thes. 5:9-10: For G-d has not appointed us for wrath, but to obtain salvation by Adonai Yeshua HaMashiach, Who died for us, that, whether we are awake or asleep, we should live together with Him.

[This is a later point made by Shaul out of chronology
to affirm that G-d will protect His chosen ones.]

Rev. 13:8: And all who dwell on the earth will worship him [the  Lawless One ], whose names are not written in the book of life of the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world.

Rev. 13:10: He who leads into captivity will go into captivity. He who kills with the sword must be killed with the sword. Here is the patience and the faith of the holy ones.

Rev. 14:12-13: Here is the patience of the holy ones. Here are those who keep the commandments of G-d, and the faith of Yeshua. And I heard a voice from heaven saying unto me, Write, Blessed are the dead who die in Adonai from now on. Yes, says the Spirit, that they may rest from their labors and their works do follow them.

Rev. 18:4: And I heard another voice from heaven, saying, "Come out of her, my people, so that you are not partakers of her sins, and so that you receive not of her plagues."

Rev. 12:11: And they overcame him by the blood of the Lamb, and by the word of their testimony; and they loved not their lives unto the death… .

Rev. 12:14: …  And to the woman were given two wings of a great eagle, that she might fly into the wilderness, to her place, where she is nourished for a time, and times, and half a time, from the face of the serpent.


2f. The Sun and Moon Darkened

Joel 2:10-11: The earth will quake before them; the heavens shall tremble; the sun and the moon shall be dark, and the stars shall withdraw their shining: And Adonia shall utter his voice before His army, for His camp is very great: for He is strong who executes His Word. Because the day of Adonai is great and very terrible; and who can abide it?

Isaiah 13:9-11: Behold, the day of Adonai comes, cruel both with wrath and fierce anger, to lay the land desolate. And He will destroy the sinners thereof out of it. For the stars of heaven and the constellations thereof shall not give their light. The sun shall be darkened in its going forth, and the moon will not cause her light to shine. And I will punish the world for their evil, and the wicked for their iniquity. I will cause the pride of the presumptuous to keep Shabbat, and will humble the majesty of the tyrannical.

Matt. 24:29 Immediately after the tribulation of those days the sun will be darkened, and the moon will not give her light, and the stars will fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens shall be shaken.

Rev. 6:12-17: And I beheld as he opened the sixth seal. There was a great earthquake; and the sun became black as sackcloth of hair, and the moon became as blood; And the stars of heaven fell to the earth, as when a fig tree casts her untimely figs when she is shaken by a mighty wind. And the heavens departed as a scroll when it is rolled together; and every mountain and island were moved out of their places. And the kings of the earth, and the great men, and the rich men, and the chief captains, and the mighty men, and every bondman, and every free man, hid themselves in the dens and in the rocks of the mountains. They said to the mountains and rocks, 'Fall on us, and hide us from the face of Him who sits on the throne, and from the wrath of the Lamb. For the great day of His wrath has come and who will be able to stand?'

[This portion is chronologically out of place in the Book,
since the seals seem to be an overview of the coming
events. It rushes to the end when Messiah is about to come.]


3. The Return of Messiah



4. The Reign of Messiah



5. The Rebellion Against Messiah

5a. Satan Released from the Pit



5b. Satan Judged



5c. Second Resurrection and Great White Throne


6. The Redemption of Earth by Messiah

6a. New Heaven and New Earth



6b. New Jerusalem — the Lamb’s Bride



6c. The Eternal State



  1. For a verse-by-verse commentary go to BibleStudyTools.com and search for Revelation 1:1 (for example). Below the displayed text, find the section that says “Study Tools for Revelation 1:1.” On the next line down, click on the plus sign [+] in front of “A Testimony of Jesus Christ (Revelation).” The drop-down will display “Revelation 1:1” and “Revelation 1.” Click on either of these, and a verse-by-verse commentary will open in a parallel column to the right of the text. Explore and enjoy!! [RETURN]

  2. September 7, 2015. Since Family Bible Ministries no longer has a functioning membership and I speak for nobody besides myself, I changed all the “We believe” references to “I believe” for the sake of full disclosure. [RETURN]

  3. Flavius Josephus, Antiquities, 15, 403 ff. [RETURN]

  4 Moshe and the Prophets, the Scriptures. The Hebrew Scriptures, called the Tanakh, were divided into three sections, the Torah (also called Moshe, or Moses), the Prophets, and the Writings. For a listing of books in each of thse sections, go here[RETURN]

  5. … those who dwell in heaven. The angelic beings, not the righteous dead. There is nothing in all of Scripture to support the idea that the righteous dead go to the “third heaven,” the Throne of HaShem. [RETURN]

  6. Michael. Hebrew: lakym (Miyka'el, "who is like God") The chief archangel who is described as the one who stands in time of conflict for the children of Israel. [RETURN]

  7. The Book of Life. [RETURN]








 Mashiach’s Earthly Kingdom

I believe[2] Adonai Yeshua HaMashiach will return to the earth just as He went, in Person and in the body in which He was crucified, now glorified, coming on the clouds of heaven, and with power and great glory to introduce the Millennial Kingdom, to bind HaSatan and place him in the abyss, to lift the curse which now rests on the whole creation, to fully restore a reunited Israel to her own land and to give to her the realization of God’s covenant promises, to bring the whole world to the knowledge of God, and to personally and bodily reign over the whole earth for a thousand years. I believe that in His glorified body, Adonai Yeshua HaMashiach will proudly bear the marks of His sacrifice as an eternal “badge of honor.”

I believe that all who died “in Messiah” (that is, having trusted HaShem for eternal life through the Messiah, whether before or after the Cross) will be resurrected and be given glorified bodies like His, and that they will actively participate in the “management” of the Kingdom.

I believe that Holy Temple will be rebuilt in Jerusalem, that the priesthood and the sacrifices will be restored, and it will be from the Temple that HaMashiach will reign over a restored Israel. I believe that King David will literally rule as co-regent with Mashiach, and that Avraham will be “governor” (or similar) over the entire promised land from the Nile to the Euphrates. I believe that Israel will be recognized as the center of earth’s government and a “light to the nations,” and that all the peoples of all the nations will come “up to Jerusalem” to observe all the Feasts of Adonai under the tutelage of Israel.

The Final Rebellion and Judgment

I believe that following the release of HaSatan at the end of the Millennium, he will deceive the nations of the earth and gather them to battle against Messiah and His saints, and against Jerusalem, and they will be destroyed by fire from heaven. HaSatan will then be cast into the lake of fire, where the Beast and the False Prophet live in eternal torment. All of the unrighteous dead will then be resurrected to stand before the Great White Throne, where the books of their lives will be opened and they will be judged according to their deeds. But regardless of their deeds, “since not one was found ever having been written in the Book of Life, he was cast into the lake of fire” (Revelation 20:15, literal), where they will experience eternal conscious torment.

The elements of the earth will then be dissolved with a great rushing sound and HaShem will create a completely new heaven and earth. The new Jerusalem will come down out of heaven and will be the eternal dwelling place for all (and only) those whose names are written in the Lamb’s Book of Life, where they will enjoy eternal fellowship with HaShem and with one another. Having fulfilled His redemptive mission, Adonai Yeshua HaMashiach will then deliver up the kingdom to HaShem the Father. Although Scripture seems to be silent on the matter, I like to think that King Yeshua will continue to reign on the redeemed earth, either physically in person or through a designated regent.

The Eternal State

I believe in the bodily resurrection of all humanity, the righteous to eternal life, and the unrighteous to judgment and everlasting punishment. I believe that the souls of the redeemed are at death absent from the body and present with the Lord, where in conscious bliss they await the first resurrection, when spirit and body are reunited to be glorified forever with the Lord. I believe that the souls of unbelievers remain after death in conscious punishment and torment until the second resurrection when, with soul and body reunited, they shall appear at the Great White Throne Judgment, and shall be cast into the Lake of Fire, not to be annihilated, but to suffer everlasting conscious punishment and torment.

Under ConstructionThe Return of Messiah

The following passages of Scripture speak of the future return of Yeshua HaMashiach to earth, and are presented here in approximate chronological order, and are from a blend of four main scriptural sources: Daniel 12 (supported by other prophets), Matthew 24, the Shliach Sha'ul’s chronology in his letters to the Thessalonians (which tracks with Messiah’s chronology), and the book of Revelation, which is generally chronological, but which contains flashes backward and forward in time.

See also “Three Major View of the Millennium

Messiah's Coming in the Atmosphere
(Sound of the Shofar and Voice of the Archangel)

Isaiah 27:12-13: And it shall come to pass in that day, that Adonai shall thresh… and you will be gathered one by one: you children of Israel. And it shall come to pass in that day, that the great shofar shall be blown, and they will come who were ready to perish… and worship Adonai in the holy Mount at Jerusalem.

Isaiah 40:10-11: Behold, Adonai your G-d will come with a strong hand, and His arm shall rule for Him. Behold, His reward is with Him, and His work before Him. He will feed His flock like a shepherd; He shall gather the lambs with His arm, and carry them to His bosom…

Isaiah 59:20: And the Redeemer shall come to Zion; unto those who turn from transgression in Jacob, says Adonai.

Matt. 24:30-31: And then shall appear the sign of the Son of man in heaven, and then shall all the tribes of the earth mourn, and they will see the Son of man coming in the clouds of heaven with power and great glory. And He will send his angels with a great sound of a shofar…

1 Thes. 4:16-17: For Adonai Himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the shofar of G-d… (17 in the atmosphere)

Rev.19:11-15: And I saw heaven opened, and behold a white horse; and He who sat upon him was called Faithful One and True [Remembered One], and in righteousness He judges and makes war. His eyes were as a flame of fire, and on His head were many crowns; and He had a name written, that no man knew, except Himself. And He was clothed with a talit dipped in blood: and His name is called The Word of G-d. And the armies which were in heaven followed Him upon white horses, clothed in fine linen, white and clean. And out of His mouth proceeds a sharp sword, and with it He can strike the nations: and He will rule them with a rod of iron, for He treads the winepress of the fierceness and wrath of Almighty G-d.

The Resurrection of the Righteous Dead

Dan. 12:2: And many of those who sleep in the dust of the earth shall awaken, some to everlasting life…

Matt. 24:31: … and they shall gather together His chosen ones from the four winds, from one end of the heavens [atmosphere] to the other.

2 Thes. 4:14: For if we believe that Yeshua died and rose again, even so those also which sleep in Yeshua will G-d bring with Him…

2 Thes. 4:15: … we which are alive and remain until the coming of Adonai shall not preceed [rise before] those who are asleep.

2 Thes. 4:16: … and the dead in Messiah shall rise first.

Rev. 20:4-6: And I saw thrones, and they sat upon them, and judgment was given unto them: and I saw the souls of those who were beheaded for the witness of Yeshua, and for the Word of G-d [Torah], and who had not worshipped the Creature, neither his image, neither had received his mark upon their foreheads, or in their hands; and they lived and reigned with Messiah a thousand years. But the rest of the dead did not live again until the thousand years were finished. This is the first resurrection. Blessed and holy is the one who has part in the first resurrection. On such the second death has no power, but they will be Kohanim of G-d and of Messiah, and shall reign with Him a thousand years.

The Ingathering of the Righteous Living

Although most of the Church teaches that these prophecies refer to a “Rapture of the Church,” I believe they may actually be referring to a physical airlift, which would have been difficult for the prophets to describe, since they had never seen an airplane. More about that airlift here.

Dan. 12:3: And those who are wise shall shine as the brightness of the firmament; and those who turn many to righteousness as the stars for ever and ever.

Matt. 24:31: … and they shall gather together His chosen ones from the four winds, from one end of the heavens [atmosphere] to the other.

2 Thes. 4:17: Then we who are alive and remain shall be caught up together with them in the clouds, to meet Adonai in the atmosphere…

Rev. 19:6-7: … HalleluYah! for the Adonai Elohim the omnipotent reigns! Let us be glad and rejoice, and give honor to Him, for the marriage of the Lamb is now here, and His wife has made herself ready…

Rev. 16:9: … And he said to me, "Write, Blessed are those who are called to the marriage supper of the Lamb …

[Rev. 16:9 anticipates the union of Messiah with His own. Reference to Messiah
as “the Lamb” here alludes to the Passover Seder as the marriage supper.]

Messiah’s Return to Earth in Wrath

Zechariah 14:3-4: Then Adonai will go forth, and fight against those nations, as when He fought in the day of battle. And His feet shall stand in that day upon the Mount of Olives, which is before Jerusalem on the east; and the Mount of Olives shall split in the middle toward the east and toward the west, and there shall be a very great valley. Half of the mountain shall remove toward the north, and half of it toward the south.

Matt. 24:48-51: But if that evil servant says in his heart, Adonai delays His coming; And begins to strike his fellowservants, and to eat and drink with the drunken, The Lord of that servant will come in a day when he looks not for Him, and in an hour that he is not aware of, And shall cut him to pieces, and appoint him his portion with the hypocrites. There shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth.

2 Thes. 1:7-10: And to you who are troubled rest with us, when Adonai Yeshua shall be revealed from heaven with His mighty angels, In flaming fire, taking vengeance on those who know not G-d, and that do not obey the good news of Adonai Yeshua HaMashiach. Who shall be punished with everlasting destruction from the presence of Adonai, and from the glory of His power; When He shall come to be glorified in His holy ones, and to be admired on that day in all those who believe.

1 Thes. 4:17: … and thus we will forever be with Adonai.

1 Thes. 4:18: … comfort one another with these words.

Rev. 19:14-17: And the armies that were in the sky followed Him upon white horses, clothed in fine linen, white and clean. And out of His mouth proceeds a sharp sword, that with it He would strike the nations. And He will rule them with a rod of iron, for He treads the winepress of the fierceness and wrath of Almighty G-d. And He has on His Talit on His thigh a name written, KING OF KINGS, AND LORD OF LORDS. And I saw an angel standing in the sun; and he cried with a loud voice, saying to all the birds that fly in the midst of sky, 'Come and gather yourselves together unto the supper of the great G-d…

Rev. 19:19-21: And I saw the Creature, and the kings of the earth, and their armies, gathered together to make war against Him who sits on the horse, and against His army. And the Creature was taken, and with him the false prophet who performed miracles before him, with which he deceived those who received the mark of the Creature, and those who worshipped his image. They both were cast alive into a lake of fire burning with brimstone. And the rest were killed with the sword of Him who sits upon the horse, which sword proceeds out of His mouth, and all the birds were filled with their flesh.




Revised 09 September 2015

Page last updated on Saturday, 27 August 2016 04:29 PM
(Updates are generally minor formatting or editorial changes.
Major content changes after May 3, 2015 are identified as "Revisions”)